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Examples of allelopathy from published research.

Jodi Herold, currently a master of arts degree candidate in educational measurement and evaluation, was licensed by the College of Physiotherapists of Ontario in 1991. Since June 1996, she has served as lecturer for the Department of Physical Therapy and academy associate for interprofessional education with University of Toronto’s Faculty of Medicine. In 1998, she also became a research assistant there, responsible for Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) examination for evaluation of surgical skills curriculum in the postgraduate surgery program for the Center for Research in Education, Faculty of Medicine, and served as an evaluator and statistician on other special projects within the school. She has also worked as a standardized patient trainer for the Canadian Alliance of Physiotherapy Regulatory Boards.

What are the Qualities of a Good Hypothesis?

one of the most dramatic and successful innovations in this area is the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Candidate performance in the OSCE is typically rated using two rating forms, a binary checklist form and a process-oriented or global rating form. In the vast majority of OSCE’s, checklists account for the bulk of marks awarded to candidates, with global ratings accounting for 25% or less in most cases. Recently, however, several arguments have been advanced to support an increased use of global ratings over the traditional reliance on checklists. Global ratings appear to have psychometric properties that are at least as good as, and often better than, checklists. Further, there is a growing literature that suggests that clinicians with higher levels of expertise do not solve problems in clinical settings using approaches reflected in a checklist approach. Finally, the checklists are binary ratings that tend to neglect higher components of clinical competence, such as empathy, rapport and ethics.

What are the main characteristics of a good hypothesis?

A second desirable attribute of a good hypothesis is generality.

Through these studies, we will obtain both valuable experience in the logistics of using SSs as evaluators and critical information on the psychometric properties of these evaluations Standardized Students may hold promise for more specific and useful information on the quality of clinical teaching in medical schools.

While the medical profession continues to value non-cognitive variables such as interpersonal skills and professionalism, it is not clear that current evaluation tools, particularly those used during admissions protocols, are capable of reliably assessing ability in these domains. Hypothesizing that many of the problems with tools like the personal interview might be explained, at least in part, by context specificity afflicting the accuracy of assessments of non-cognitive abilities, we have developed a multiple sample approach to the measurement of these competencies and propose further study of this innovation.

Characteristics of Good Research | Experiment | Data

At the completion of this project, we will have developed a multidimensional scale of lifelong learning supported by extensive psychometric evidence for the validity and reliability of the scale. This is consistent with the stated goal of the Stemmler Medical Education Research Fund of the National Board of Medical Examiners, by developing an assessment tool that will serve researchers in the evaluation of those preparing to or continuing to practice medicine, as well as in the assessment of medical school curriculum and residency training programs designed to improve lifelong learning skills and habits among medical students and residents.

Problems with communication and team coordination are frequently linked to adverse events in medicine. Researchers in the health care industry are increasingly aware of the importance of teamwork skills and advocate a wide variety of training programs related to team coordination. These efforts are prevalent in dynamic environments such as the emergency department and operating room and tend to be focused toward specialty and continuing education. While the assessment of medical students has covered areas such as interpersonal and communication skills, these assessment measures generally focus on the student's interaction with the patient and do not assess team skills in relation to working with other health care providers. Efforts to understand and assess team performance in other work environments have resulted in the identification of specific skills that are important to good teamwork and methods for assessing these skills.

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Methods: This proposal begins with archival data from patient notes written in Calibrated Peer Review T by four medical student classes (2005-2008) and continues gathering note-writing data, along with survey and focus group information, from two additional classes (2010 & 2011). Four studies are proposed. 1) The archival study evaluates individual factor correlations using the scores from 3,468 completed "assignments," as well as trends in score deviation of the peer review and self-assessment over time. 2) The quality of feedback study codes students' narrative feedback to analyze quality trends over assignment iterations. 3) The perceptions of feedback study asks students' opinions about sample feedback of varying quality. 4) The student survey and focus group study constructs questions to assess students' habits in preparation for note-writing during the performance examinations, their perceptions of the CPR system, and how it aids their learning. Descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, qualitative analyses, and analysis of change via Hierarchical Linear Modeling, as relevant to each research question, will be conducted.

What are the characteristics of a good research hypothesis?

Rationale: Health professions’ admission committees across the world are faced with the difficult task of selecting, from among many eligible applicants, the select few who will be admitted to their training programs. The determinants of this admissions process are often a combination of cognitive measures, such as Grade Point Average (GPA) or standardized tests such as the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) and non-cognitive measures, including interviews and essays. However, there has been limited success in the development of evaluation tools that will provide reliable and valid measures of an applicant’s non-cognitive qualities. The exception to this is the MMI, in essence an admissions OSCE. The MMI has been shown to predict intramural and licensing examination performance. However, like any OSCE the MMI has practical limitations; the sheer volume of candidates for many institutions makes it necessary to develop a reliable and valid strategy for screening candidates’ non-cognitive attributes in a more efficient fashion. To this end a new measure, using video scenarios and written or audio responses was developed and a pilot study was completed. In 2006, 110 applicants to McMaster’s medical school completed this Computer-based Multiple Sample valuation of Non-cognitive Skills (CMSENS). Of those applicants, 78 completed the CMSENS by verbally recording their responses in an audio file while 32 typed their responses. The overall test generalizability was .86 for the audio CMSENS, and .72 for the written. The written CMSENS also demonstrated predictive validity, correlating with the MMI at .51. However, conclusions from this study are limited because of the small sample and the one-time nature of the findings.

Characteristics of hypothesis in research - …

During the project, 144 fourth-year medical students participating in a Medicine sub-internship will be randomized to an intervention group or a control group; the intervention group will receive additional training in the application of qualitative methodology to elicit and incorporate contextual factors in the clinical encounter. All students will participate in an SP assessment consisting of four SPs, blinded to trial arm, presenting cases with and without important biomedical and contextual factors in a counterbalanced factorial design. Performance will be compared between trial arms. In addition, performance will be compared with USMLE Step 2 clinical knowledge scores to determine whether contextualizing ability is independent of clinical knowledge, and consistency of performance across individual SP cases will be studied to determine the number of cases necessary to achieve sufficient reliability for the assessment to be used.

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