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Protein synthesis regulatory factor vital for long-term ..
Ribosomes facilitate the coupling of tRNA anticodons with mRNA codons.
Ribosomes are composed of large and small subunits.
These subunits are constructed of proteins and RNA molecules called ribosomal RNA or rRNA.
-two subunits of ribosomes bring together the mRNA
-a tRNA containing the first amino acid of a polypeptide begins the process of translation
-the start codon signals the start of translation
Step 2: Elongation
-Amino acids are added on one by one to the proceeding amino acid
-mRNA is moved through the ribosome in one direction (only the 5' end first)
-the ribosome and the mRNA move relative to each other uni-directionaly, codon by codon
Step 3: tERMINATION
-Elongation continues until a stop codon is reached on the A site of the ribosome (UAG, UAA, and UGA).
-there are technically three sites when the ribosomes attach to each other: the P site, the A site and the E site
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To cut a long story short, when insulin binds to the cell wall everything issupposed to be phosphorylated by ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) which loses one ofits phosphate ions to become ADP (adenosine diphosphate). This has to occur alot in order to get to the point where glycogen synthesis is activated. And thensince glycogen is long branches chains of Uridine Diphosphate Glucose, two moreATP molecules have to be used for each unit in the chain.
involved in protein synthesis in the ..
To a diabetic all food is basically poison. Either the carb puts your sugarup or the excess protein puts your sugar up of the wrong fat puts your insulinresistance up. In the end we die of a diabetic complication because we havepoisoned ourselves to death. We have no choice because the alternative isto starve to death. Yes very low calorie diets can reverse type2. But for howlong? You cannot eat a very low calorie diet indefinitely. So what is needed isa get out of jail free food. A food that is low in carbs, not excessive inprotein and contains only good fat. That food is flaxseed or chia seed orperilla seed (wild sesame seed) orflax oil or chia oil or perilla oil. Because all three have between 3:1and 5:1 ALA to LA. But things are not that simple (of course). AlthoughPerilla seed has the best ALA/LA ratio it is quite a strong antioxidant. So muchso that it inhibits COX and LOX - which is not going to help us make more PG1sand TX1s. Chia seed is also an antioxidant but only around half as strong asperilla. The only relatively inert ALA seed is flaxseed. So that is the one togo for. Chia seed bread does not help. I have not tried perilla seed bread (Ihave plenty of the seed), because I am worried about the antioxidant capabilityof the food. - - .
The two main classifications of steroids are the anabolics and the corticosteroids (the reproductive hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and others are also classified as "steroids"). The anabolic steroids function to increase protein synthesis by the body and build muscle mass. The drugs are designed to be used in the treatment and rehabilitation of chronic debilitating disease processes. The drugs often are used in attempting to make a gelding act more like a stallion and to promote the development of muscle mass and therefore strength, stamina, and endurance. The drugs allow for a better conversion of the protein ingested through feed into body proteins (and more particularly muscle tissue).
Protein Synthesis Essay - 461 Words - StudyMode
It is made by using a DNA template.
In the end it attaches to a ribosome and specifies how a protein forms.
To make mRNA you need an RNA Polymerase: an enzyme that pries two strands of DNA apart and joins the RNA nucleotides as they base pair along the DNA template (A to U and C to G)
Step 1: Initiation
-recognize the promoter
-A specialized sequence of DNA nucleotides where transcription begins.
-RNA polymerase binds to the promoter
-TATA Box-crucial promoter DNA sequence
-The DNA is unwound
Step 2: Elongation
-RNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the 3' end
-as the RNA polymerase moves along the DNA template strand, the newly formed RNA peels away, allowing the DNA to re-twist
Step 3: Termination
-the mRNA cuts off and leaves the DNA template strand
-the area where transcription ends is called the terminator
-the area that was transcribed is called the transcription unit
The RNA molecule is also synthesized (made on the DNA strand in an anti-parallel direction).
Synthesized RNA is COMPLEMENTARY not identical.
DNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm.
The base sequence of an mRNA molecule is translated into an amino acid sequence of polypeptides (a chain of amino acids).
Ribosomes (rRNA) are the site of translation, and they facilitate the orderly linking of amino acids into polypeptide chains.
The information from gene to protein is based on a triplet code of nucleotides called codons (AGT, AUG, etc.).
Each codon codes which one of the amino acids will be incorporated into the corresponding polypeptide chain.
The Transfer RNA (tRNA) reads the codons on the mRNA.
The steroids, an extremely broad category of drugs and natural hormones, have a wide variety of effects on the body. All drugs when used for the wrong reasons or at an inappropriate dose or frequency of treatment can be toxic--the steroids are no exception. The two main classifications of steroids are the anabolics and the corticosteroids (the reproductive hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and others are also classified as "steroids"). The anabolic steroids function to increase protein synthesis by the body and build muscle mass. The drugs are designed to be used in the treatment and rehabilitation of chronic debilitating disease processes. The drugs often are used in attempting to make a gelding act more like a stallion and to promote the development of muscle mass and therefore strength, stamina, and endurance. The drugs allow for a better conversion of the protein ingested through feed into body proteins (and more particularly muscle tissue). The anabolic steroids should be used with caution and within ethical boundaries. There can be severe side effects that include making a horse so hyped-up that he actually becomes dangerous to humans. There also is the development of liver disease with chronic use. The anabolic steroids have pharmaceutical actions on the body that are very different from the corticosteroids. Some corticosteroids only have an effect for 30-40 minutes after administration, whereas others can have an effect for weeks. The individual potency also varies greatly, with some being 100 to 1,000 times more powerful than others. One of the major mechanisms of action of the corticosteroids is to decrease inflammation. The corticosteroids also reduce inflammation associated with allergic reactions--one important use is for the treatment of allergic airway disease (allergic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease--COPD or heaves). The corticosteroids are extremely potent anti-inflammatory agents that also are useful in the treatment of numerous disease processes. The most common usage is for the treatment of arthritic conditions and certain types of joint problems. As with all drugs, there are a good side and a bad side. The good side is that the corticosteroids are very effective in reducing the inflammation associated with joint injury and arthritis. The bad side is that they potentially can have a seriously negative impact on cartilage health. Corticosteroids, if used inappropriately, can destroy the cartilage and potentially contribute to chronic arthritis. The corticosteroids have a well-documented negative impact on normal healing with respect to soft tissue (tendon and ligament) injury. So, essentially any injury where corticosteroids are used will have a delay in the healing process. The corticosteroids often are injected locally or applied topically with "carrier" agents such as DMSO to the areas of soft-tissue injury. Again, this has a good and a bad side. The decrease of inflammation in soft tissue injuries is very important for the overall outcome. But in some cases, if the horse continues working in the face of that injury, more serious tendon or ligament damage can occur. The horse is working on an injury that feels better due to the steroids, so not only is he placing normal strains on injured tissue, that tissue’s healing responses have been decreased. It has been well demonstrated that long-term chronic use of systemic steroids (especially at higher doses) suppresses the immune system. In competition horses already experiencing stresses that can supress the immune system (e.g., trailering), these effects might be compounded. Horses given corticosteroids on a regular basis might be predisposed to chronic infection--lung and sinus most commonly. Another side effect of corticosteroids in the horse is laminitis or founder. The specific reason why corticosteroids predispose to founder is unknown, but it is thought to be related to an effect on the blood supply to the deep layers of the foot. The occurrence of this phenomenon is variable and is more likely to occur when more potent types of corticosteroids are used or very high doses of the less potent ones are used for long periods of time. The exception to this is the individual horse, which for unknown reasons, is more sensitive to corticosteroids with respect to founder. It has been observed that even a few low doses of less-potent corticosteroids will cause sore feet in some horses. In addition, if systemic corticosteroids are used, an effort should be made to 1) use as low a dose as possible to achieve the desired therapeutic effect; 2) use them for as short a time period as possible; 3) monitor the horse for any signs of development of infection, e.g., daily temperature taken while on the drug; and 4) monitor the horse for any signs of laminitis or founder (sore feet/lameness, warm feet, etc.). Also, it should be remembered that if the corticosteroids are being given for a musculoskeletal problem, a significant masking of pain can occur. Continued exercise of injured tissue might not be in the best interest of the horse. The use of either corticosteroids or anabolic steroids should only be under the advice and prescription of a veterinarian.
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