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RNA and Protein Synthesis Gizmo : ExploreLearning

This annealing of an RNA strand to its complementary DNA strand is called hybridization and plays a crucial role in the transcription and translation of genetic sequences into protein sequences.

Go through the process of synthesizing proteins through RNA transcription and translation

The purpose of this exercise is to become familiar with the structure of nucleic acids, DNA, RNA and to reinforce the role of DNA and RNA in the process of protein synthesis.

RNA, Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis 2

In eukaryotes, transcription, or synthesis of mRNA, and translation, the synthesis of proteins, are separated in space and time.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a mature, copy of a gene that describes the exact sequence in which amino acids should be bonded together to form a protein. Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are responsible for picking up particular amino acids and transferring them to the ribosomes for assembly into polypeptides. Each tRNA molecule contains a triplet nucleotide sequence that can base-pair with a codon on the mRNA. This triplet nucleotide sequence on tRNA that is complementary to the codon of mRNA is called an anticodon. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is used in the manufacture of ribosomes where mRNA and tRNA come together in the synthesis of proteins.

DNA transcription is the process of making a single strand complementary RNA copy of DNA. Data is copied from the DNA to the RNA with the aid of the enzyme RNA polymerase. Using this process, the genetic information stored in the DNA is carried in the form of RNA to other parts of the cell. In eukaryotic cells a gene begins with a promoter region and an initiation code and ends with a termination code. However, the intervening gene sequence contains patches of nucleotides that have no meaning. If they were used in protein synthesis, the resulting proteins would be worthless. Eukaryotic cells prune these segments from the mRNA after transcription. RNA polmerase synthesizes a strand of pre-mRNA that initially includes copies of the meaningful mRNA coding sequences (exons) and the meaningless mRNA coding sequences (introns). Soon after its manufacture, this pre-mRNA molecule has the meaningless introns clipped out and the exons spliced together in the final version of mature mRNA

Quia - DNA, RNA, replication, protein synthesis, quiz

DNA, RNA, replication, protein synthesis, quiz

The three types of RNA are:

messenger RNA or mRNA
transfer RNA or tRNA
ribosomal RNA or rRNA

In addition there are RNA molecules found in viruses (viral RNA) that serve as the genomic blue print that normally is encoded in DNA, and ribonucleo-proteins of diverse origin both ribosomal and non-ribosomal in nature.

The genetic material making up genes is composed of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). DNA has several properties that enable it to function as genetic material; it is able to (1) direct the synthesis of copies of itself (replicate itself), (2) store information that directs protein synthesis, and (3) direct the synthesis of structural and regulatory proteins. DNA is composed of nucleic acids. Therefore, appreciation of the structure of nucleic acids and DNA, and the process of protein synthesis are essential prerequisites to the understanding of control of cellular activity, drug action, and various disease processes.

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