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Protein Synthesis | Translation (Biology) | Proteins

Previous studies have indicated that the nucleolusis plurifunctional (,). In addition to the typically recognizedfunction of ribosome biosynthesis, the nucleolus supports theproduction of additional gene expression components, includingtransfer RNA and translational apparatus, the signal recognitionparticle, ribonucleoprotein enzyme involved in maintenance oftelomerase integrity and U6 RNA, a catalytic RNA of the spliceosome().

Teaching Protein Synthesis (Replication, Transcription, and Translation) is a challenge

Xu J, Li Y, Yang X, Chen Y and Chen M:Nuclear translocation of Small G protein RhoA via activetransportation in gastric cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 30:1878–1882.2013.

From RNA to Protein Synthesis - YouTube

Mar 10, 2007 · RNA is synthesized from DNA, and enters the ribosome where protein translation and synthesis occurs.

In the current era of translational medicine, thenewly recognized roles of the nucleolus raise the possibility thatcancer drug discovery and emerging chemotherapy may identify afoundation in the nucleolus or nucleolar proteins to a greaterdegree than had been anticipated (). Knowledge of the location, function andduration of the residency of proteins in the nucleolus is vital inidentifying additional drug targets in the nucleolus.

It is during this translation process, when DNA/RNA language becomes protein language, that life reaches its full complexity.

The body contains tens of thousands of different proteins that control what happens in the body with an astounding precision.

Protein Synthesis and the Lean, Mean Ribosome Machines - YouTube

An internal ribosome entry site, abbreviated IRES, is a RNA element that allows for translation initiation in a cap-independent manner, as part of the greater process of protein synthesis

Thus it was possible to map ribosome functionality at the most basic, atomic level.

The small subunit’s “double checking”
A property of the ribosome, that has fascinated scientists for a long time, is that it seldom makes any errors when it translates DNA/RNA-language into protein language.

Yung BY, Bor AM and Chan PK: Shortexposure to actinomycin D induced ‘reversible’ translocation ofprotein B23 as well as ‘reversible’ inhibition of cell growth andRNA synthesis in HeLa cells. Cancer Res. 50:5987–5991.1990.

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Ruminal fermentation modification of protein and …

The cell nucleolus is a dynamic, non-membrane-boundsubnuclear structure, which has a classically well-established rolein ribosome biogenesis, including the synthesis and processing ofthe ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursor molecules (pre-rRNAs) and theassembly of pre-rRNAs with particular ribosomal and nonribosomalproteins to form preribosomal particles (,). Mammaliannuclei typically contain one nucleolus, whereas tumor cells tend tocontain several nucleoli (). Thetypical tripartite organization of the nucleolus in mammals, whichaccounts for ribosomal gene transcription and pre-rRNA processingefficiency, is composed of three distinct components: The fibrillarcenter (FC), the dense fibrillar component (DFC) and the granularcomponent (GC) (–). The early accumulation and processing ofrRNA takes place in the DFC, whereas late rRNA processing andbuilding of the ribosomal components occurs in the GC (). As well as small nucleolar RNAs, a numberof proteins, including fibrillarin and nucleolar phosphoprotein B23(B23), are located in the nucleolus (). With regard to the unique nulceolarlocalization in the cells at interphase, fibrillarin and B23 arealso widely used as markers for the DFC and GC, respectively().

SparkNotes: SAT Subject Test: Biology: Protein Synthesis

The method queries a large number of other feature prediction servers to obtain information on various post-translational and localizational aspects of the protein, which are integrated into the final secretion prediction ( J.D.

Internal ribosome entry site - Wikipedia

Small G protein ras homolog family member A (RhoA),with a molecular weight of 21 kDa, is the most extensively studiedmember of the Rho guanosine triphosphate (GTP)ase family and ispart of the Ras super family of small G proteins (). RhoA has been reported to regulatenumerous biological activities, including gene transcription() and tumor progression (). Recent research on the intracellularlocalization of RhoA has shown that it is located not only in thecytosol and cell membrane, but also in the cell nucleus (–).Notably, previous studies have demonstrated that the nuclearlocalization of RhoA with predominant concentration in the cellnucleolus is a common feature in human cancer tissues and celllines (,). Although our previous study hasdemonstrated that the nuclear translocation of RhoA is via activetransport, a process involving importin α in a nuclearfactor-κB1-dependent manner, the mechanism, biological function andpathological meaning of the nucleolar residency of RhoA remain tobe elucidated ().

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Sweet P, Chan PK and Slater LM:Cyclosporin A and verapamil enhancement of daunorubicin-producednucleolar protein B23 translocation in daunorubicin-resistant and-sensitive human and murine tumor cells. Cancer Res. 49:677–680.1989.

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