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Protein synthesis in rat brain during sleep.
CNS requirements for specific amine acids during periods of undernutrition or when individuals are exposed to highly stressful conditions may be particularly critical. For example, among moderately undernourished, but not highly stressed soldiers participating in a field test of an energy deficient ration, decrements in tryptophan were associated with impaired cognitive performance (Lieberman et al., 1997). Furthermore, a series of studies suggests that supplemental administration of tyrosine increases brain catecholaminergic neurotransmission and has beneficial effects on various behavioral parameters associated with resistance to stress (for a recent review, see Lieberman, 1994). Tyrosine is one of the dietary precursors for the synthesis of the catecholamines, dopamine and norepinephrine. The beneficial neurochemical and behavioral consequences of supplemental tyrosine administration are most readily observed when humans and other animals are exposed to various environmental and psychological stressors (Wurtman et al., 1981).
Sleep also promotes phosphorylation of protein synthesis regulators (i.e., 4E-BP1 and eEF2) and the translation (but not transcription) of key plasticity related mRNAs ( ARC and BDNF ).
Protein Synthesis during Sleep Consolidates ..
chain amine acids following a carbohydrate meal. Following consumption of carbohydrate, which elicits the secretion of insulin, the concentration of the branched-chain amine acids in the plasma falls as they move into muscle, while tryptophan levels remain relatively unchanged. Therefore, since more tryptophan is available for transport by the LNAA carrier mechanism, tryptophan transport to the brain increases and more tryptophan is available for the synthesis of serotonin. In humans, it has been established that changes in the protein:carbohydrate ratio of foods can alter plasma tryptophan levels in the same way as in experimental animals (Lieberman et al., 1986a).
To date, an association of changes in protein and carbohydrate intake with changes in behavior has not been clearly established, but several behavioral functions have been shown to be sensitive to substantial changes in plasma tryptophan levels. When tryptophan is administered in pure form or in higher than physiologic concentrations in meals, or is artificially lowered by administering tryptophan-free meals, substantial changes in a variety of behavioral parameters can be observed. One of the most frequently documented effects of tryptophan administration is an increase in self-reported mental fatigue. Tryptophan's effects on arousal and alertness appear to be similar to those produced by mild over-the-counter sedatives such as antihistamines. These effects have been documented with self-reported mood questionnaires () and by polysomnography (Hartmann and Greenwald, 1984; Lieberman et al., 1985). The hypnotic-like effects observed in humans after tryptophan administration are consistent with reports implicating brain serotonin neurons in the regulation of alertness. Although tryptophan is clearly not as potent as prescription hypnotic drugs, it was sold as an over-the-counter, natural sleep aid until several years ago. It was withdrawn from the market when a large number of cases of a rare disease called eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) were seen in individuals who were taking it. The exact cause of the disease has never been conclusively demonstrated, although it has been suggested that a contaminant was present in the tryptophan produced by one manufacturer.
sleep is associated with increased brain protein synthesis ..
We show that intracortical inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent protein synthesis during sleep abolishes consolidation but has no effect on plasticity induced during wakefulness.
They are principally during transcription (phenomena of RNA synthesis from template) and translation (phenomena of amino acid assembly from RNA).
Biophysicists construct complex hybrid structures using DNA and proteins.
is a post-translational modification of proteins in which an amino acid residue is phosphorylated by a protein kinase by the addition of a covalently bound phosphate group.
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Protein synthesis in rat brain during sleep
In support of this hypothesis, sleep is associated with increased brain protein synthesis ( 2, 3 ) and transcription of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) involved in protein synthesis regulation ( 4, 5 ).
Brain RNA and Protein Synthesis during ..
Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men.
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