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Eukaryotic and prokaryotic tRNAs are very similar in many respects.

Cytoskeleton: This is a kind of skeleton that is made up of protein which is found inside the cytoplasm. Present in all cells, it's important for the intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles, as well as the process of cellular division.

Fig. 7: mRNA Processing in Eukaryotic Cells (Excision of Interons and Joining of Exons)

Life in all its diversity is composed of only two types of cells: Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic. Prokaryotic cells are simple, one-celled organisms; such as bacteria.

coli and as many as 10 x 10 in some eukaryotic cells).

Fig. 3: Transmission electron micrograph of the yeast Candida albicans, a eukaryotic cell.

1. Briefly describe why, in terms of differences in cell size, a eukaryotic cell is structurally more complex and compartmentalized than a cell that is prokaryotic.

Unlike prokaryotes, most genes in higher eukaryotic cells contain large amounts - as much as 98% in the human genome - of regions called that are not part of the code for the final protein. These are interspersed among the coding regions or that actually code for the final protein.

Contribution from eukaryotic and prokaryotic pathways

Left side shows ezymes presents in prokaryotes and right side shows enzyme in eukaryotes.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): The surface of an ER is studded with special ribosomes that produce protein. These ribosomes are not stable until they actually bind to the ER. This occurs when the ER begins to synthesize proteins meant for the secretion pathway. The ER is necessary to many functions: secreting proteins, producing important membrane proteins, assembling glycosylation, and producing lysosomal enzymes.

Cell theory is a unifying concept which links all life forms on earth together.

"Understand that in complex organisms, cells are organised into tissues, organs, and organ systems."


"Know the ultrastructure of prokaryotic cells and the structure of organelles, including: nucleoid, plasmids, 70S ribosomes and cell wall."

Fig. 3: Transmission electron micrograph of the yeast Candida albicans, a eukaryotic cell.
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Fig. 8: Illustration of a prokaryotic ribosome during translation.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum: Can modify proteins to alter their function and/or destination. Synthesizes proteins to be excreted from the cell.

Concept map for Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

A hint at one of the critical differences between the two type of cells is in their names; Eukaryotic, derived from the Greek, means "true nucleus, " whereas Prokaryotic means "before the nucleus." In addition to having a nucleus, Eukaryotic cells have a nucleolus containing the cell's DNA, as well as specific membrane-bound compartments, organelles, where specific metabolic activities occur. Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus or contain these more complex inner structures.

PH School - Compare Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells

A large surface-to-volume ratio, as seen in smaller prokaryotic cells, means that nutrients can easily and rapidly reach any part of the cells interior. However, in the larger eukaryotic cell, the limited surface area when compared to its volume means nutrients cannot rapidly diffuse to all interior parts of the cell. That is why eukaryotic cells require a variety of specialized internal organelles to carry out metabolism, provide energy, and transport chemicals throughout the cell. Both, however, must carry out the same life processes. Features distinguishing prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are discussed on the following pages. All of these features will be discussed in detail later in Unit 1.

Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis ..

Let's take a closer look at the components of the Eukaryotic cells. This overview offers a brief description of what each component of a cell is and what it does for us that keeps us alive, thriving, and healthy. Or not.

Protein Synthesis: Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes - YouTube

Prokaryotic cells have naked DNA which is found in the cytoplasm in a region named the nucleoid. On the other hand, eukaryotes have chromosomes that are made up of DNA and protein. These chromosomes are found in the nucleus enclosed in a nuclear envelope.

Where does protein synthesis occur? - Quora

All other life is composed of Eukaryotic cells. Not surprisingly, Prokaryotic cells are far simpler in structure and they are also much smaller than Eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells are around 15 times wider and can be up to 1,000 times larger in volume.

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