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RNAs involved in protein biosynthesis

The modified ends may promote the export of mRNA from the nucleus, and they help protect the mRNA from degradation.
RNA Splicing
The removal of large portions of the RNA molecule that is initially synthesized.

Process of protein biosynthesis

RNAs involved in protein biosynthesis
Information flow in the cell: DNA is transcribed to mRNA which is translated (decoded as) into Protein. Protein biosynthesis takes place in the ribosomes. A series of ribosomes (poly ribosome) can simultaneously translate the same eukaryotic mRNA molecule. tRNA brings specific amino acid to ribosome and mRNA carries the genetic information to protein. Codons that encode the same amino acid often differ only by their third base. The binding of the third base is less stringent than the other two. Because of this wobble, one tRNA can pair with multiple mRNA codons.

RNAs involved in protein biosynthesis

Accurate translation of the genetic information from DNA to protein is maintained by multiple quality control steps from bacteria to mammals. Genetic and environmental alterations have been shown to compromise translational quality control and reduce fidelity during protein synthesis. The physiological impact of increased translational errors is not fully understood. While generally considered harmful, translational errors have recently been shown to benefit cells under certain stress conditions. In this work, we describe a novel regulatory pathway in which reduced translational fidelity downregulates expression of flagellar genes and suppresses bacterial motility. Electron microscopy imaging shows that the error-prone Escherichia coli strain lacks mature flagella. Further genetic analyses reveal that translational errors upregulate expression of a small RNA DsrA through enhancing its transcription, and deleting DsrA from the error-prone strain restores motility. DsrA regulates expression of H-NS and RpoS, both of which regulate flagellar genes. We demonstrate that an increased level of DsrA in the error-prone strain suppresses motility through the H-NS pathway. Our work suggests that bacteria are capable of switching on and off the flagellar system by altering translational fidelity, which may serve as a previously unknown mechanism to improve fitness in response to environmental cues.

Process of protein biosynthesis
There are signal sequences before the real coding sequence at the translation initiation sites. Amino acid activation is catalyzed by amino acyl-tRNA synthetase and couples it to its corresponding tRNA. Anti codon in tRNA molecule forms base pairs with the appropriate codon on the mRNA. In the initiation step, initiation factors are involved. Initiation factor is the protein that promotes the proper association of ribosomes with messenger RNA. In the elongation step, incorporation of an amino acid into a protein takes place. As a result, polypeptide chain is grown. Termination is the last stage in protein biosynthesis.

Process of protein biosynthesis

Quality control and chaperones
If at all, a wrong amino acid is added, tRNA synthetase removes the incorrectly attached amino acid through hydrolytic editing. There are protein molecules called chaperones that catalyze the correct folding of other proteins within the cell. They also help in preventing aggregation. The hsp70 family of molecular chaperones helps in correct folding after synthesis.

The newly formed polypeptide chain undergoes several modifications before becoming a fully functioning protein. Proteins have a . Some will be used in the , while others will remain in the or be transported out of the . Many copies of a protein can be made from one mRNA molecule. This is because several can translate the same mRNA molecule at the same time. These clusters of ribosomes that translate a single mRNA sequence are called polyribosomes or polysomes.

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CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES IN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS …

Since nutrition surveys blend male and female data, these numbers may be reversed as males do tend to eat more protein than females.

By your sources, people would be eating over 200 grams of protein per day (RDA of protein for females of 50 times 4), which translates into 800 calories alone from fat free protein food sources i.e.

Where does protein synthesis occur? - Quora


Three Stages of Transcription
Initiation
Once the RNA polymerase binds to the promoter, the DNA strands unwind, and the polymerase initiates RNA synthesis at the start point of the template strand.
A collection of proteins called transcription mediate the binding of RNA polymerase an the initiation of transcription.

Translation: Making Protein Synthesis Possible

Information flow in the cell: DNA is transcribed to mRNA which is translated (decoded as) into Protein. Protein biosynthesis takes place in the ribosomes. tRNA brings specific amino acid to ribosome and mRNA provides the sequence information for protein. Protein biosynthesis has three processes: Initiation involved with initiation factors, elongation involved with growing of peptide chain and termination. Hydrolytic editing also takes place if a wrong amino acid is added.

7 Answers - What is protein synthesis? - Quora

In addition resistance exercise like weight lifting is a powerful anabolic (building) process that improves protein synthesis (increased muscle mass).

In fact what athletes need is increased caloric intake (60 calories per kilogram of body weight per day) which may contain protein food sources as well.

What is protein synthesis and what are some examples?

Information flow in the cell: DNA is transcribed to mRNA which is translated (decoded as) into Protein. Protein biosynthesis takes place in the ribosomes. tRNA brings specific amino acid to ribosome and mRNA provides the sequence information for protein. Protein biosynthesis has three processes: Initiation involved with initiation factors, elongation involved with growing of peptide chain and termination. Hydrolytic editing also takes place if a wrong amino acid is added.

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