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Editing mechanisms in protein synthesis
Humans have roughly 22,000 genes.
The first step in decoding these genetic messages is to copy part of the nucleotide sequence from DNA into RNA, or ribonucleic acid.
These RNA molecules contain coded information for making proteins
consists of a long chain of nucleotides,
and is made up of the
same things as DNA
(a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base)
for one small difference:
the sugar group in RNA is ribose.
RNA also differs from DNA
in the fact that it is
single stranded, and has the base uracil instead of thymine
(therefore, in RNA
A bonds with U
RNA is like a
segment of DNA
In many cases, an
RNA molecule is a working copy of a single gene.
The ability to
copy a single DNA sequence into RNA
makes it possible for a
single gene to produce hundreds or even thousands of RNA molecules
three main types
1.) messenger RNA (mRNA)
2.) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
3.) transfer RNA (tRNA)
The job of
messenger RNA (mRNA)
carry copies of instructions
assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA
to the rest of the cell
The job of
transfer RNA (tRNA)
transfer, or move, amino acids to ribosomes
The job of
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
make up the major part of ribosomes.
Sep 5, 1988. The trmD operon of Escherichia coli encodes the ribosomal proteins S16 and L19, the tRNAm1G37methyltransferase and a 21,000 Mr protein. TRNA, and that the synthesis of ribosomal protein, like the synthesis of rRNA, is subject to the influence of the rel gene control system. In exponentially growing.
before it is translated into protein
"word" in mRNA
is known as a
consecutive nucleotides that specify a
single amino acid
that is to be
For example, consider the following RNA sequence:
It would be read three bases at a time:
And these three codons represent the different amino acids:
UCG- CAC- GGU
Because there are
four different bases,
possible three-based codons (4x4x4 =64)
This wheel shows all 64 possible codons of the genetic code.
Some amino acids
can be specified by
more than one codon.
You start at the center of the circle and move outwards to find the amino acid.
There is also one codon,
, that can either specify for the
amino acid methionine
or serve as the
for protein synthesis.
There are also
three "stop" codons
any amino acid.
in DNA cause transcription to
when the new RNA molecule is
Our DNA contains
sequences of nucleotides
not involved in coding for proteins.
code for proteins
because they are
in the synthesis of proteins.
introns are cut out of RNA
molecules while they are still in the
spliced back together
to form the
final strand of mRNA.
The Genetic Code
are made by
joining amino acids
02/04/1996 · Abstract
RNAs involved in protein biosynthesis
Information flow in the cell: DNA is transcribed to mRNA which is translated (decoded as) into Protein. Protein biosynthesis takes place in the ribosomes. A series of ribosomes (poly ribosome) can simultaneously translate the same eukaryotic mRNA molecule. tRNA brings specific amino acid to ribosome and mRNA carries the genetic information to protein. Codons that encode the same amino acid often differ only by their third base. The binding of the third base is less stringent than the other two. Because of this wobble, one tRNA can pair with multiple mRNA codons.
Process of protein biosynthesis
There are signal sequences before the real coding sequence at the translation initiation sites. Amino acid activation is catalyzed by amino acyl-tRNA synthetase and couples it to its corresponding tRNA. Anti codon in tRNA molecule forms base pairs with the appropriate codon on the mRNA. In the initiation step, initiation factors are involved. Initiation factor is the protein that promotes the proper association of ribosomes with messenger RNA. In the elongation step, incorporation of an amino acid into a protein takes place. As a result, polypeptide chain is grown. Termination is the last stage in protein biosynthesis.
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Quality control and chaperones
If at all, a wrong amino acid is added, tRNA synthetase removes the incorrectly attached amino acid through hydrolytic editing. There are protein molecules called chaperones that catalyze the correct folding of other proteins within the cell. They also help in preventing aggregation. The hsp70 family of molecular chaperones helps in correct folding after synthesis.
David R. Liu Group - The Chemistry of Molecular Evolution
Information flow in the cell: DNA is transcribed to mRNA which is translated (decoded as) into Protein. Protein biosynthesis takes place in the ribosomes. tRNA brings specific amino acid to ribosome and mRNA provides the sequence information for protein. Protein biosynthesis has three processes: Initiation involved with initiation factors, elongation involved with growing of peptide chain and termination. Hydrolytic editing also takes place if a wrong amino acid is added.
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