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Analogy for protein synthesis? | Yahoo Answers
Microenvironments in lymphoid tissue Microenvironment Cells present Function Bone marrow Haematopoietic cells organized as Differentiation of stem cells into cells islands within fatty tissue, mature of the erythroid, myeloid/monocytoid, leukocytes, plasma cells platelet and lymphoid lineage; antibody synthesis, memory cells Thymus Cortex Reticular epithelium, immature Generation of T-cell competence, T cells T-cell receptor rearrangement, positive selection (MHC restriction), negative selection (autoreactive cells), phenotypic changes Medulla Reticular epithelium, dendritic cells, Final generation of T-cell competence T lymphocytes (negative selection), thymic hormone synthesis, antigen presentation Lymph node and spleen Paracortex (lymph node), Interdigitating cells, Th and Ts cells Lymphocyte entry through high periarteriolar lymphocyte sheath lymphoendothelial venules (lymph node) or central arteriole (spleen), antigen presentation to Th cells, T-cell proliferation, differentiation, and regulation (Ts cells) Primary follicles, follicular mantle Dendritic cells (subtype of follicular Storage of virgin and memory B cells, of secondary follicles dendritic cells), dendritic macrophages, recirculating B cells (surface IgM+IgD+) B cells, small number of T cells Table 3 (cont'd) Microenvironment Cells present Function Germinal centre Follicular dendritic cells, dendritic T Cell-dependent B-lymphocyte macrophages (starry-sky macrophages), differentiation, antigen presentation in the B cells (centrocytes, centroblasts), form of immune complexes (with/without Th cells complement C3) Medulla (lymph node), Plasma cells, T effector cells, Termination of antigen-specific reaction: red pulp (spleen) reticular cells, polymorphonuclear antibody synthesis and immune granulocytes complex-mediated clearance, Tdth and Tc cell response Marginal zone (spleen) Marginal zone macrophages, T Cell-independent B-lymphocyte marginal metallophilic cells, proliferation and differentiation, e.g.
Binding of fomivirsen to the target mRNA results in inhibition of viral protein synthesis., HIV nucleoside-analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors examples zidovudine (AZT; ZDV; Retrovir); didanosine (ddI; dideoxyinosine; Videx); stavudine (d4T; Zerit); lamivudine (3TC; Epivir); abacavir (ABC; Ziagen); emtricitabine (FTC; Emtriva, Coviracil), HIV mode of action HIV Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs), Antiviral Agents used to treat HIV, HIV mode of action HIV Protease Inhibitors (PIs), Integrase Inhibitors example raltegravir (Isentress), influenza viruses examples zanamivir (Relenza); oseltamivir (Tamiflu), hepatitis C virus (HCV) examples telaprevir (Incivek); boceprevir (Victrelis), amantadine (Symmetrel); rimantidine (Flumadine) mode of action blocks the uncoating step blocking viral replication, lamivudine (Epivir-HBV); adefovir dipivoxil (Hepsera) mode of action Chemically resemble a normal DNA nucleoside.
HELP! COOKING ANALOGY of PROTEIN SYNTHESIS? | …
It means that cats lack specific metabolic (enzymatic) pathways and cannot utilize plant proteins as efficiently as animal proteins.It is very important to remember that not all proteins are created equal.Proteins derived from animal tissues have a complete amino acid profile. (Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Think of them as pieces of a puzzle.) Plant-based proteins do not contain the full complement (puzzle pieces) of the critical amino acids required by an obligate carnivore. The quality and composition of a protein (are all of the puzzle pieces present?) is also referred to as its biological value.Humans and dogs can take the pieces of the puzzle in the plant protein and, from those, make the missing pieces. Cats cannot do this. This is why humans and dogs can live on a vegetarian diet but cats cannot. (Note that I do not recommend vegetarian diets for dogs.)Taurine is one of the most important nutrients present in meat but it is missing from plants. Taurine deficiency will cause blindness and heart problems in cats.The protein in dry food, which is often heavily plant-based, is not equal in quality to the protein in canned food, which is meat-based. The protein in dry food, therefore, earns a lower biological value score.Because plant proteins are cheaper than meat proteins, pet food companies will have a higher profit margin when using corn, wheat, soy, rice, etc.Veterinary nutritionists and pet food company representatives will argue that they are smart enough to know *exactly* what is missing from a plant in terms of nutrient forms and amounts – nutrients that would otherwise be in a meat-based diet. They will then claim that these missing elements are added to their diets to make it complete and balanced to sustain life in an obligate carnivore.Does anyone really think that humans are that smart?This is the kind of arrogance that has led to fatal errors in the past. Not all that long ago (1980s) cats were going blind and dying from heart problems due to this arrogance. It was discovered in the late 1980s that cats are exquisitely sensitive to taurine deficiency and our cats were paying dearly for humans straying so far from nature in order to increase the profit margin of the pet food manufacturers.There are several situations that can lead to a diet being deficient in taurine but one of them is using a diet that relies heavily on plants (grains, etc.) as its source of protein. Instead of lowering their profit margin and going back to nature by adding more meat to the diets, the pet food companies simple started supplementing their diets with synthetic taurine.This may be all well and good for this particular problem, but how do we know that we are not blindly going along unaware of other critical nutrients that are missing from a plant-based diet?Why are nutritionists so arrogant to think that we can safely stray so far from what a cat is designed by nature to eat?Also note that synthetic taurine is manufactured from a chemical reaction and all taurine (at least that I know of) comes out of China. Given that country’s horrible track record with regard to food safety, I certainly would not want to depend on taurine from China’s chemical synthesis to meet my cats’ taurine needs.With regard to the overall protein amounts contained in dry versus canned food, do not be confused by the listing of the protein percentages on the packaging. At first glance, it might appear that the dry food has a higher amount of protein than the canned food—but this is not true on a dry matter basis which considers the food minus the water. Most canned foods, when figured on a dry matter basis, have more protein than dry food. And remember, even if this was not the case, the percentage numbers do not tell the whole story.
Before transcription and translation into TCR becomes possible, combinations have to be made of the gene segments that encode the variable and constant parts of the TCR.
Protein Synthesis ANALOGY: Step-by-Step students …
Very sensitive analysis can be done with the semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction, which is a powerful technique for elucidating early kinetic changes of cytokine expression, before translation and secretion (Saiki et al., 1985).
Since melanomacrophage centres can be considered primitive analogues of the mammalian lymph follicle (Payne & Fancey, 1989), it has been suggested that their presence indicates immune capacity or function, although their role in this context has not yet been established and the implications of a change in this parameter for the integrity of the defence systems remains unclear.
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are used to make proteins and form an analogy using ..
The restaurant’s large recipe book represents a DNA genome. A head chef writes out the recipe for the main course and posts it on a blackboard. The re-writing is transcription and the words written in chalk represent mRNA. (There may be hundreds of recipes, but the head chef only chooses one to make right now.) Some chefs modify the recipe by writing on the blackboard to add extra chili power or salt etc. (This represents mRNA processing.) Next, each chef begins assembling the dish by bringing all the correct ingredients to the pot on the stove. The pot represents the ribosome and the ingredients represent the amino acids. The chef represents the tRNA who carries the right ingredients to the pot. The ingredients are added in the order dictated by the directions written in chalk and this cooking is analogous to translation. The final cooked dish represents the protein. This special dish may be temporary because the head chef can erase the blackboard at any time. mRNAs are also temporary; when they are not present, the protein cannot be made.
Protein Synthesis by Jeff Nichols on Prezi
The Nucleolus is like the Factory Supplier The ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis and cooking supplies (pots and pans) are where food preparation begins.
08/12/2016 · -The directions for the protein ..
In a study of 66 CFS/ME patients and 53 healthy controls blood was analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR using primers for nontranslated enteroviral sequences. The blood was analysed for the presence of a prominent 750base pair sequence previously reported in 12 out of 24 Gulf War Veterans. 77% of patients had a prominent 750 base pair sequence compared to 0% of the controls.
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