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What is the role of Golgi apparatus in protein synthesis?

The (in a reaction called ),and these deaminated amino acids are then converted into Acetyl CoA whichpasses through the Kreb's Cycle to make more ATP.

The Golgi apparatus: protein transport and packaging …

Then, on the inside of the cell, ATP (Adenosine TriPhosphate) binds toanother site on the carrier and phosphorylates (adds one of its phospategroups, or -PO, to) one of theamino acids that is part of the carrier molecule.

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, ..

Ultimately, the string of amino acids folds upon itself, adopting the unique shape that is the signature of that particular protein. Source:

TheER, , and lysosomes are all members of a network of membranes,but they are not continuous with one another. Therefore, the membrane lipidsand proteins that are synthesized in the ER must be transported through the networkto their final destination in membrane-bound . Cargo-bearing vesiclespinch off of one set of membranes and travel along microtubule tracks to thenext set of membranes, where they fuse with these structures. Traffickingoccurs in both directions; the forward direction takes vesicles from the siteof synthesis to the Golgi apparatus and next to a cell's lysosomes or plasmamembrane. Vesicles that have released their cargo return via the reversedirection. The proteins that are synthesized in the ER have, as part of theiramino acid sequence, a signal that directs them where to go, much like anaddress directs a letter to its destination.

Endoplasmic reticulum - Wikipedia

Inside every cell, ribosomes read mRNA sequences and hook together protein building blocks called amino acids in the order specified by the code: Groups of three nucleotides in mRNA code for each of 20 amino acids.

Bioinformatics 21: 3369-3376).
- The underlying assumption is that globular proteins are composed of amino acids which have the potential to form a large number of favorable interactions, whereas intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs) adopt no stable structure because their amino acid composition does not allow sufficient favorable interactions to form.

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Rough endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi apparatus (or "Golgi ..

Scientists are studying many aspects of the ER and Golgi apparatus, including a built-in quality control mechanism cells use to ensure that proteins are properly made before leaving the ER (Source: ).

PRACTICE QUIZ CHAP. 6 Flashcards | Quizlet

Proteins that require special conditions or are destined to become part of the cell membrane are processed in the ER and then handed off to another organelle called the Golgi apparatus.

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The Golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell.
lysosome - (also called cell vesicles) spherical organelles surrounded by a membrane; they contain digestive enzymes.

Protein synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum - YouTube

The Golgi apparatus functions as a molecular assembly line in which membrane proteins undergo extensive post-translational modification. Many Golgi reactions involve the addition of sugar residues to membrane proteins and secreted proteins. The carbohydrates that the Golgi attaches to membrane proteins are often quite complex, and their synthesis requires multiple steps.

You can see a more detailed animation of such protein synthesis ..

Most polar compounds such as amino acids, organic acidsand inorganic salts are not allowed entry, but instead must be specificallytransported across the membrane by proteins.

Virtual Cell Animation Collection

In electron micrographs, the Golgi apparatus looks like a set of flattened sacs. Vesicles that bud off from the ER fuse with the closest Golgi membranes, called the cis-Golgi. Molecules then travel through the Golgi apparatus via vesicle transport until they reach the end of the assembly line at the farthest sacs from the ER — called the trans-Golgi. At each workstation along the assembly line, Golgi enzymes catalyze distinct reactions. Later, as vesicles of membrane lipids and proteins bud off from the trans-Golgi, they are directed to their appropriate destinations — either lysosomes, storage vesicles, or the plasma membrane (Figure 2).

Online Analysis Tools - Protein Secondary Structure

After translation, the protein passes into the channels of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for transportation. The protein is then passed from the rough ER to the Golgi apparatus inside tiny fluid-filled sacs, called vesicles. The Golgi apparatus is a system of , which are responsible for the modification, processing, and packaging of the proteins. The protein may have a carbohydrate added, to form a glycoprotein. The Golgi apparatus packages the protein in a secretory vesicle, which fuses with the cell membrane and releases the protein from the cell.

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