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Furthermore, carbohydrate deficiency leads to protein catabolism and, together with the deficit in vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin A, thiamine, vitamin C, and zinc, worsens the clinical condition26.

Inflammation and immune system

Inflammation is the first stage of the healing process, and is closely linked to oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant capacity.


With insulin deficiency, the oxidation of branched chain amino acids in muscle and uptake of alanine (the principle glycogenic amino acid) by the liver is accelerated, resulting in increased gluconeogenesis and augmented protein catabolism.18 The accompanying rise in glucose levels is most likely due to an increased conversion of ingested protein into glucose and to a decreased glucose removal rate.

Anabolism and Catabolism: Definitions & Examples - …


A study of subjects following a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet for 12 weeks reported substantial increases in plasma levels of both uric acid and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, decreases in triglycerides, but no increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, despite effective weight loss.53

The myriad of chemical reactions occurring in the cell are collectively called metabolism. Metabolism can be divided into two categories: 1) catabolism, the breakdown of molecules, and 2) anabolism, the synthesis of new molecules. We will look at two aspects of metabolism: 1) enzymes, and 2) energy and metabolism. (We will cover some aspects of the last section of chapter 3, biosynthesis, later.)

Glossary | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University

C-reactive protein (CRP) a protein that is produced in the liver in response to inflammation

Fortunately, the large amount of protein in the customary diet of people with diabetes compensates for the increased protein catabolism and thus protects from protein malnutrition.86

Proteins are assembled from amino acids using information encoded in genes
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