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are best for promoting photosynthesis?
Photopigments: Organic substances responsible for collecting light energy and hence the promotion of photosynthesis. Common photopigments in zooxanthellae are chlorophyll , chlorophyll peridinin, and -carotene.
Figure 1. An action spectrum for a stony coral's zooxanthellae. Using this chart, it would appear that blue light is the most efficient promoter of photosynthesis. Is it?
Scientists claim reverse photosynthesis ..
Although plant salt tolerance has been improved by soil inoculation with rhizobacteria containing the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (which metabolises ACC, the immediate precursor of the phytohormone ethylene), it is not always clear whether ion homeostasis and plant water relations are affected. When pea ( L. cv. Alderman) was grown with 70 and 130 mM NaCl, the ACC-deaminase containing rhizobacterium 5C-2 increased total biomass by 25 and 54% respectively. Nutrient flow modelling showed that 5C-2 increased K uptake and root to shoot K flow, but decreased Na flow and increased Na deposition in roots. Thus, shoot K+ : Na+ ratio increased following 5C-2 inoculation. At 70 and 130 mM NaCl, rhizobacterial inoculation decreased stomatal resistance by 14 and 31% and decreased xylem balancing pressure by 7 and 21% respectively. Furthermore, rhizobacterial inoculation improved photosynthetic efficiency (v/m) by 12 and 19% and increased maximal electron transport rate (ETR) by 18 and 22% at 70 and 130 mM NaCl respectively. Thus 5C-2 mitigates salt stress by improving water relations, ion homeostasis and photosynthesis of pea plants, and may provide an economic means of promoting growth of plants exposed to salt stress.
Figure 33. A screen shot of Walz's WinControl-3 as it processes multiple data points to estimate how light promotes photosynthesis in zooxanthellae.
Photosynthetic Efficiencies of LEDs: Results of Short …
The radiometric power of a photon matters not in photosynthesis - a blue photon (with high radiometric power) will drive photosynthesis just as well as a photon of lesser energy (say, a red photon.) So, it would seem that the issue is settled. It is not. The adage 'a photon is a photon' is true when discussing light production by various light sources, but it is not correct when considering how different light wavelengths (or bandwidths) promote photosynthesis.
Determination of efficient (photosynthetically speaking) light sources is important for several reasons. Economy in the costs of maintaining a coral reef aquarium certainly is a concern, but the health of zooxanthellae and hence their animal host should be of primary importance. Aesthetic concerns, such as the promotion of coral coloration through expression of fluorescent proteins and non-fluorescent chromoproteins, are of interest to many.
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Chumbaka – Experiential Learning for Kids in Technology
PAM Fluorometer: A device capable of monitoring chlorophyll fluorescence, and is capable of calculating the fate of absorbed light energy, either through photosynthesis or two other dissipation pathways (including NPQ: Non-Photochemical Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence by protective xanthophylls) or NO (dissipation by other pathways, including photoinhibition.) PAM stands for Pulse Amplitude Modulated light intensity. PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation): That visible light energy between 400 and 700nm. It is important to note that photosynthesis does not simply stop at wavelengths below 400nm - violet and some ultraviolet wavelengths can promote photosynthesis!
Using Technology to Solve Real-Life Challenges
Advanced technology allows quick determination of a light source's ability to promote photosynthesis. The availability of two devices has made this possible: A 'photosynthesis meter' (a PAM fluorometer, which allows in-situ determination of rates of photosynthesis) and LEDs (Light-Emitting Diodes of high efficiencies when combined with lenses to create intense light fields.)
ActionBioscience - promoting bioscience literacy
Using these data, it would seem that we need only to use a light source that mimics action or absorption spectra in order to promote photosynthesis in a manner.
Updated November 2013 Introduction
Results of these experiments suggest that violet, blue, and red light with peaks away from the absorption maxima of carotenoids present in zooxanthellae are most efficient in the promotion of photosynthesis. See Table 9.
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