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where does photosynthesis occur in eukaryotes? how …

There are no cilia., Eukaryotic Cells cellular characteristic Chloroplasts serve as organelles for photosynthesis., Eukaryotic Cells cellular characteristic The nucleus divides by mitosis.

Photosynthesis consists of light-dependent and light-independent reactions.

Every type of eukaryotic organism has its own unique collection of chromosomes.The fact that nuclei are present in all eukaryotic cells was recognized as early as 1833 by Robert Brown, and it is from the name "true nucleus" that we get the word "eu-karyote".

Start studying Biology: Prokaryotic cells/Eukaryotic cells

Photosynthesis usually takes place in infoldings or extensions derived from the cytoplasmic membrane., The cell is the basic unit of life.

Excavata is a large and diverse grouping that has been proposed based on a synthesis of morphological and molecular data. Many excavates share a similar feeding groove structure (from which the name is derived) (Simpson and Patterson, 2001; Simpson and Patterson, 1999). Many others lack this structure, but are demonstrably related to lineages that possess it in molecular phylogenies (Simpson, 2003; Simpson et al., 2006; Simpson et al., 2002). Putting this evidence together led to the suggestion of shared ancestry, and some recent multi-gene phylogenies in fact provide tentative support for the monophyly of the whole group (Burki et al., 2008; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta et al., 2007). Many excavates are anaerobes/microaerophiles and contain mitosomes or hydrogenosomes (e.g. diplomonads and parabasalids). Some are important parasites of animals (e.g. trypanosomes, Giardia). One lineage, the euglenids, includes photosynthetic species that have plastids derived from a green alga by secondary endosymbiosis (Breglia et al., 2007; Leander et al., 2007).

Opisthokonta is a grouping consisting of Animals (Metazoa), the true Fungi and their close protistan relatives. The closest relatives of animals include choanoflagellates, which are free-living unicellular or colonial flagellates, and the parasitic Ichthyosporea (also known as Mesomycetozoea). Fungi are most closely related to a group of amoebae called nucleariids. Opisthokonts share two conspicuous features that are uncommon in other eukaryotes: Almost all cells in this group have flat mitochondrial cristae, while flagellated cells typically have a single emergent flagellum that inserts at the posterior end of the cell (Cavalier-Smith, 1987). The monophyly of this group has been shown convincingly by molecular phylogenies (Baldauf and Palmer, 1993; Lang et al., 1999; Ragan et al., 1996; Ruiz-Trillo et al., 2006; Steenkamp et al., 2006; Wainright et al., 1993), and also by a large, conserved insertion within the protein Elongation Factor 1-alpha (Baldauf and Palmer, 1993; Steenkamp et al., 2006). Recently a possible shared lateral gene transfer has been reported (Huang et al., 2005).

study sheet for photosynthesis and cellular respiration

For example, the breakdown of certain food molecules to provide energy takes place in the , and photosynthesis takes place in a .

As we can see, there is a close relationship between the action spectrum and absorption spectrum of photosynthesis. There are many different types of photosynthetic pigments which will absorb light best at different wavelengths. However the most abundant photosynthetic pigment in plants is chlorophyll and therefore the rate of photosynthesis will be the greatest at wavelengths of light best absorbed by chlorophyll (400nm-525nm corresponding to violet-blue light). Very little light is absorbed by chlorophyll at wavelengths of light between 525nm and 625 (green-yellow light) so the rate of photosynthesis will be the least within this range. However, there are other pigments that are able to absorb green-yellow light such as carotene. Even though these are present in small amounts they allow a low rate of photosynthesis to occur at wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot absorb.

A limiting factor is a factor that controls a process. Light intensity, temperature and carbon dioxide concentration are all factors which can control the rate of photosynthesis. Usually, only one of these factors will be the limiting factor in a plant at a certain time. This is the factor which is the furthest from its optimum level at a particular point in time. If we change the limiting factor the rate of photosynthesis will change but changes to the other factors will have no effect on the rate. If the levels of the limiting factor increase so that this factor is no longer the furthest from its optimum level, the limiting factor will change to the factor which is at that point in time, the furthest from its optimum level. For example, at night the limiting factor is likely to be the light intensity as this will be the furthest from its optimum level. During the day, the limiting factor is likely to switch to the temperature or the carbon dioxide concentration as the light intensity increases.

They also do not have a membrane-bound  and have few specialized structures located within their cell boundary.
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hamlinclassof2018 - Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Further evidence to support the endosymbiont theory is that mitochondria have their own DNA, in the form of a circular chromosome that is topologically like bacterial chromosomes. The sequence of the mitochondrial DNA most closely resembles the sequences of genes in alpha-proteobacteria. Mitochondrial ribosomes are structurally more similar to bacterial ribosomes than to eukaryotic ribosomes. Mitochondria reproduce in eukaryotic cells by fission, again resembling bacterial cell division.

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration ..

Energy metabolism in eukaryotic cells, from Wikipedia. This is a highly condensed illustration. Students should identify the various compounds and talk through (explain) this diagram.

In the stroma, the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis, ..

In addition to providing a significant nutritional mode, the advent of endocytosis in an ancestor of living eukaryotes also enabled a completely new way to generate cellular change and complexity: endosymbiosis. Put simply, endosymbiosis is the process by which one cell is taken up by another and retained internally, such that the two cells live together and integrate at some level, sometimes permanently. Endosymbiotic interactions have been common in eukaryotic evolution, and many such partnerships persist today (Margulis, 1981). In two cases, however, endosymbiotic events had far-reaching effects on the evolution of life: these are the origins of mitochondria and plastids (chloroplasts).

Plastids have diverse functions in addition to photosynthesis, ..

In eukaryotic cells, glycolysis and fermentation reactions occur in the cytoplasm. The remaining pathways, starting with pyruvate oxidation, occur in the mitochondria. Most eukaryotic mitochondria can use only oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration. In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate enters the mitochondrial matrix and is oxidized to acetyl-CoA, and then to CO2 via the citric acid cycle. The electron transport chain and ATP synthase are located on the mitochondrial inner membrane.

Dark Reaction in Photosynthesis: Location: ..

The known diversity of morphological characters in eukaryotes is simply staggering and can be attributed to the vast multitude of possible solutions to basic biological problems, such as nutrition/feeding, locomotion, defense, refuge, mate selection and reproduction. Eukaryotes are built from one or more internally differentiated cells comprised of intricate subcellular systems. Several single-celled lineages, for instance, have reached the utmost degree of morphological complexity within the confines of a single enveloping cell membrane (e.g. parabasalids, ciliates, ), while others have reached the lower limits of morphological complexity by becoming extremely streamlined (e.g. picophytoeukaryotes, ). Moreover, some multicellular eukaryotes have struck the upper physical limits of overall body size (e.g. , , and ), while others are miniaturized to the point of being smaller than single-celled counterparts in the same ecosystem (e.g. , , and ). Regardless of major differences in body size and morphological peculiarities, eukaryotes share many characteristics in common. Many of these characteristics are homologous for the entire group, whether comparing a blue whale to an amoeba or a human to a giant redwood tree.

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