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Half beans will be used to represent ATP synthetase molecules.
In respiration energy is released fromsugars when electrons associated with hydrogen are transported to oxygen (theelectron acceptor), and water is formed as a byproduct. The mitochondriause the energy released in this oxidation in order to synthesize ATP. Inphotosynthesis, the electron flow is reversed, the water is split (not formed),and the electrons are transferred from the water to CO2 and in theprocess the energy is used to reduce the CO2 into sugar. Inrespiration the energy yield is 686 kcal per mole of glucose oxidized to CO2,while photosynthesis requires 686 kcal of energy to boost the electrons from thewater to their high-energy perches in the reduced sugar -- light provides thisenergy.
Following thebriefest exposure to14CO2, the only chemical compound thatpossessed 14C was PGA (phosphoglyceric acid, a three carbon molecule).
the ATP needed for photosynthesis is produced in the mitochondria
A series of metabolic pathways (the Krebs cycle and others) in the mitochondria result in thefurther breaking of chemical bonds and the liberation of ATP.
The regeneration of RuBP is essential for carbon fixation to continue. Five triose phosphate molecules will undergo a series of reactions requiring energy from ATP, to form three molecules of RuBP. RuBP is therefore consumed and produced during the light-independent reactions and therefore these reactions form a cycle which is named the Calvin cycle.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS? explain ATP production? | Yahoo …
Students will learn about chloroplasts by the construction
and labeling of a chloroplast; aerobic respiration in the mitochondria by the
construction and labeling of a mitochondrion; and the chemical interaction of
ADP and ATP by atomic modeling of ADP and ATP molecules as well as a game.
First, we need to know what ATP really is - chemically, it is known as adenosine triphosphate. ATP is a usable form of energy for cells - the energy is "trapped" in a chemical bond that can be released and used to drive other reactions that require energy (endergonic reactions).
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Intro to Cellular Respiration: The Production of ATP
-glycolysis, in which glucose is broken up into two subunits, called pyruvate, which creates two units of ATP per molecule of glucose. This happens in the cytoplasm, in both animal and plant cells.
The production of ATP in photosynthesis is called the Calvin Cycle.
Cellular Respiration - uses oxygen from the environment and converts each pyruvate to three molecules of carbon dioxide while trapping the energy released in this process in ATP. There are 3 sub-pathways of cellular respiration - pyruvate oxidation, the citric acid (Krebs or Tricarboxylic Acid) cycle and the electron transport chain. Occurs in different sub-compartments of mitochondria.
Photosynthetic Electron Transport and ATP Synthesis
Photophosphorylation is the production of ATP using the energy of sunlight. Photophosphorylation is made possible as a result of chemiosmosis. Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their concentration gradient. During photosynthesis, light is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules. Electrons within these molecules are then raised to a higher energy state. These electrons then travel through Photosystem II, a chain of electron carriers and Photosystem I. As the electrons travel through the chain of electron carriers, they release energy. This energy is used to pump hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane and into the space within the thylakoid. A concentration gradient of hydrogen ions forms within this space. These then move back across the thylakoid membrane, down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase. ATP synthase uses the energy released from the movement of hydrogen ions down their concentration gradient to synthesise ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.
This drives the production of ATP
If the light intensity is not a limiting factor, there will usually be a shortage of NADP+ as NADPH accumulates within the stroma (see light independent reaction). NADP+ is needed for the normal flow of electrons in the thylakoid membranes as it is the final electron acceptor. If NADP+ is not available then the normal flow of electrons is inhibited. However, there is an alternative pathway for ATP production in this case and it is called cyclic photophosphorylation. It begins with Photosystem I absorbing light and becoming photoactivated. The excited electrons from Photosystem I are then passed on to a chain of electron carriers between Photosystem I and II. These electrons travel along the chain of carriers back to Photosystem I and as they do so they cause the pumping of protons across the thylakoid membrane and therefore create a proton gradient. As explained previously, the protons move back across the thylakoid membrane through ATP synthase and as they do so, ATP is produced. Therefore, ATP can be produced even when there is a shortage of NADP+.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS? explain ATP production? | Yahoo Answers
-light-dependent photosynthesis, in which electrons are cycled around photosynthetic pigments after being jostled around by mid-high-energy photons (light particles), which filter through an electron pump that makes ATP. This happens in chloroplasts, and as such only occurs in plants.
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