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Start studying Continental Drift Theory and Plate Tectonics
What heads that list may well be the primary trait that led to UP’s dominance of Earth: their mastery of language. Although social communication via sound may have and perhaps even earlier, and had , and Neanderthals had , scientists strongly suspect that the mastery of language that today’s humans display probably allowed humans to rapidly develop their technology and culture. It was humanity’s first Internet: a way to communicate ideas and information in a way previously unfeasible and even unimaginable, at a level of sophistication that no other land animal ever achieved. That invention provided the opportunity for sharing complex ideas, which created positive feedback loops that allowed for quicker cultural and technological advances. That is not fanciful speculation; linguistics, the study of brain abnormalities, and genetics testing has converged on what seems the most plausible hypothesis today, although in these areas the controversies can be fierce.
As Adam Smith’s invisible hand, fear, became an of classical economics, neoclassical economists greed in their curves. Greed and fear are thereby foundational principles in today’s economic theory, and as a salubrious and critical aspect of capitalism. How can an ideology that elevates, even celebrates, greed and fear be considered beneficial? The obsession with prices and money has also promoted an egocentric view of economic reality. Whenever people think of economics today, they generally only think in terms of money, as that is the medium of exchange by which individuals currently acquire the food, goods, and services that make their modern lives possible. Consequently, the real economy, which runs on matter and energy, not money, becomes demoted and even ignored while the magic of markets and money are worshipped. The financial economy is not real, but is an elaborate accounting fiction subject to . Theorists such as Marx put money in its proper place, as only accounting. Money-based economics is egocentric, in which the focus is on money and greed and everybody’s primary question is “What is in it for me?” That view is also disconnected from the real world.
The Ergodic Hypothesis and Equipartition of Energy
"We need to make a distinction between communicatively cooperative and socially cooperative . . .. The 'Cooperative Principle' is not about being positive and socially 'smooth,' or agreeable. It is a presumption that when people speak, they intend and expect that they will communicate by doing so, and that the hearer will help at making this happen. When two people quarrel or have a disagreement, the Cooperative Principle still holds, even though the speakers may not be doing anything positive or cooperative. . . . Even if individuals are aggressive, self-serving, egotistic, and so on, and not quite focusing on the other participants of the interaction, they can't have spoken at all to someone else without expecting that something would come out of it, that there would be some result, and that the other person/s was/were engaged with them.
If all complex cultures are morally bound to follow Dicks (2003) Intelligence Principle, and thus to maximize their civilizations and the universe's intelligence, with a moral strength proportional to their complexity, then civilizations receiving one-way METI in a universe with transcension physics would be bound to do one of two things: 1) ignore the message, if they were wise enough or 2) listen to the communication and thereby jump their complexity, taking them much closer to the black hole/merger point in a single step.
The Ergodic Hypothesis and Equipartition of Energy
Just as the aftermath of the appearance of complex life was uninteresting from a , as the amazingly diverse energy-generation strategies of archaea and bacteria were almost totally abandoned in favor of aerobic respiration, biological solutions to the problems that complex life presented were greatest during the Cambrian Explosion, and everything transpiring since then has been relatively insignificant. Animals would never see that level of innovation again. While investigating those eonic changes, many scientists have realized that the dynamics of those times might have been quite different from today’s, as once again may be of limited use for explaining what happened. Also, scientists generally use a rule-of-thumb called , or parsimony, which states that with all else being equal, simpler theories are preferred. , a seminal theorist regarding the scientific method, as they were easier to falsify. However, this issue presents many problems, and in recent times, theories of or speciation have invoked numerous interacting dynamics. Einstein noted that the more elegant and impressive the math used to support a theory, the less likely the theory depicted reality. Occam’s Razor has also become an unfortunate dogma in various circles, particularly , in which the of materialism and establishment science are defended, and often quite irrationally. Simplicity and complexity have been seesawing over the course of scientific history as fundamental principles. The recent trend toward multidisciplinary syntheses has been generally making hypotheses more complex and difficult to test, although and ever-increasing and more precise data makes the task more feasible than ever, at least situations in which are not interfering.
Scientific practice is ideally a process of theory and experimentation that can lead to new theories. There are three general aspects of today's scientific process, and it , which used to formulate his theory of evolution. First, facts are adduced. Facts are phenomena that everybody can agree on, ideally produced under controlled experimental conditions that can be reproduced by other experimenters. Hypotheses are then proposed to account for the facts by using inductive (also called ) logic. The hypotheses are usually concerned with how the universe works, whether it is star formation or evolution. If a hypothesis survives the fact-gathering process – often by predicting facts that later experiments verify – then the hypothesis may graduate to the status of a theory. Scientific theories ideally can be , which means that they can be proven erroneous. The principle of hypothesis and falsification is primarily what distinguishes science from other modes of inquiry.
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