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Polycarp - The Development of the Canon of the New …
For long ago, even from the earliest days, the Passover was celebrated at different times in the church…In the time of Polycarp and Victor, the east was at odds with the west and they would not accept letters of commendation from each other (Epiphanius. The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis, Books II and III (Sects 47-80), De Fide). Section VI, Verse 9,7. Translated by Frank Williams. EJ Brill, New York, 1994, p.411).
It was reported that the Apostles John, Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, and Matthew taught the laying on of hands for clergy, including deacons (Apostolic Constitutions, Book VIII, Section 3, XVII-XXII; while the apostles did not write this book, some of the information in it appears consistent with apostolic practices, while other information is not: since the Apostles would have believed the Bible, the laying on of hands would have been their teaching). Philip along with the Apostle John likely ordained Polycarp of Smyrna (cf. Irenaeus. Adversus Haeres. Book III, Chapter 3, Verse 4).
Encyclopedia of The Bible – Epistle of Polycarp
from c. 31 A.D. to present: information on all of the seven churches of Revelation 2 & 3. There is also a YouTube video: . There is also a version in the Spanish language: .
1. was predominant from c. 31 A.D. to circa 135 A.D. The Church of James, Peter, Paul, and John, etc.
2. was predominant circa 135 A.D. to circa 450 A.D. The Church led by Polycarp, Melito, Polycrates, etc.
3. was predominant circa 450 A.D. to circa 1050 A.D. An especially persecuted Church.
4. was predominant circa 1050 A.D. to circa 1600 A.D. The Church during the Inquisition.
5. was predominant circa 1600 A.D. to circa 1933 A.D. Discusses early history of the Seventh Day Baptists, Seventh-day Adventists, and COG-7th Day.
6. was predominant circa 1933 A.D. to 1986 A.D. The old Radio Church of God and old Worldwide Church of God, now the remnant of that era is basically the most faithful in the Church of God, like who hold to the beliefs and practices of the .
7. has been predominant circa 1986 A.D. to present. The Laodiceans are non-Philadelphians who mainly descended from the old WCG or its offshoots. They do not properly understand the work or biblical prophecies and will face the if they do not repent. One video of related interest is .
Note: History concerning Apollonius is not totally clear, but strong indications are that he was most likely in the true church (the 210 date came from The Catholic Encyclopedia). There is basically no information about Camerius of Smyrna, other than he is listed as bishop of Smyrna prior to the third century in sources like The Catholic Encyclopedia and the questionable book The Life of Polycarp. After Polycrates and Apollonius, the official history (with Eusebius the main writer) says almost nothing about the true church in Ephesus, though a compromised church from there develops importance in the fourth century. It may also be of interest to note that the succession that Polycrates provided was NOT limited to a single city, but to the predominant leader/bishop at the time. Also, if Timothy is included in the list, and Polycrates was referring to people like him as John as "his relatives", in that sense then Polycrates was the "eighth" in the above succession list. in his list (while erroneously listing Onesimus as 3 and no one as numbers 4-7).
The Paradigmatic Bishops of History- Polycarp | Ha …
In other words, the only possible area where the Roman Catholic definition of apostolic succession, from an apostle to a bishop, could have occurred was in Antioch or Asia Minor. (Ignatius, bishop of Antioich, specifically mentions Onesimus as bishop of Ephesus and Polycarp as bishop of Smyrna in his letters, but lists no "Bishop of Rome".)
The Eastern Orthodox perspective is that the other Churches had no idea that they were supposed to obey the Bishop of Rome. In the case of Polycarp, a man ordained by the Apostle John as Bishop of Smyrna, we find that Anicet (Bishop of Rome) was unable to convince him to adopt the mainline custom. Only a few years later, we see Victor (Bishop of Rome) unable to force a change on the Asiatic Churches. Why? Because no one there recognized Rome’s authority to do so. This, in the Orthodox mind, is important because these Churches were essential witnesses of the Apostles’ teachings. It is likely that John, Philip and Andrew had ministered in the area. The memory of St. John was exceptionally strong among these bishops. Had they heard anything about a Petrine succession of plenary authority in Rome? No. And yet, the Beloved Apostle was alive for at least twenty years after Peter’s martyrdom in Rome. Was John under the authority of Peter’s successor in Rome? This conclusion, which is unavoidable according to Rome’s ecclesiology, is one that the East cannot accept (Cleenewerck L. His Broken Body: Understanding and Healing the Schism Between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches (An Orthodox Perspective). Euclid University Consortium Press, Washington (DC), 2007, p. 259).
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This does not address my thesis or my argument concerning Polycarp
Well, since Polycarp denied Rome's primacy, and as through their words and/or action did Thraseas, Sagaris, Papirius,Melito,and Polycrates (and others), the above statements (and the related statements) in that book are in error--including its basic conclusions--Rome never had primacy over true, apostolic Christianity. And this is clear from the teachings and practices of many that the Romans considered to be "Fathers" of the church.
Harrison Polycarp's Two Epistles to the ..
Thus it is clear that throughout the second century, that Polycarp and the churches in Asia Minor continued to observe the Passover on the 14th of Nisan, unlike the Romans, and that they did it based upon what the Bible, those in Ephesus (a church were Paul had once placed Timothy in charge), and the Apostles (John and Philip) taught. Also, notice that the "list of apostolic succession" that Polycrates seems to provide has individuals who did not all live in the same city--Polycrates is demonstrating a spiritual succession based upon adherence to both scripture and apostolic teachings.
Polycarp is a celebrated figure in the History of Christianity
The Catholic writer Eusebius recorded that Polycrates of Ephesus, around 195 A.D. wrote the following to the Roman Bishop Victor who wanted all who professed Christ to change from the 14th of Nisan to :
The Martyrdom of Polycarp - Revolvy
Unlike many claimed apostolic successors, not only was Polycarp faithful to the teachings received from the apostles and the Bible, so were many of the leaders who were traced from him.
Polycarp Fellows | Perkins School of Theology - SMU
It appears likely that Polycarp, when he returned to Asia Minor, would have told the Christians there that he was successful in turning some away from heretics such as and . He probably was so disgusted by his Roman experience that he let those in Asia Minor know that they should not receive doctrine or other instruction from any in Rome--he also specifically would not change Passover observance to Sunday. This seems to be confirmed by writings a few decades later.
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