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Photosynthesis vs. the Food Chain

While the basic functions of both plant cells and the animal cells are similar to each other, the one function that is exclusive to plant cells is photosynthesis: the synthesis of food using water and carbon dioxide, in the presence of sunlight.

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Darker schemes. A main sequence star that is dimmer and redder than the Sun (spectral type K and M -- red dwarfs) could have plants that absorb more red and infrared wavelengths. Red dwarf stars, which only have some 10 to 50 percent of the Sun's mass but comprise perhaps 85 percent our Milky Way galaxy's stars, radiate most strongly at invisible infrared wavelengths and produce little blue light. By absorbing the entire spectrum of visible light more completely, such plants might look black but any color might be possible. Whatever their color, however, such plants would likely look dark to humans because little visible light would reaches the ground.

Photosynthesis: What are the dark reactions? - Quora

However, with time, the photosynthetic bacterial cells got engulfed by the host plant cells and formed the chloroplasts of today.

The reactions of the Calvin Cycle or the dark reactions are called so because they do not need light and these reactions lead to the formation of simple sugars from carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).

In many systems, planets may be subject to stellar flares, particularly in the close habitable zone orbits around dim red dwarfs. Even planets orbiting two bright Sun-like stars at farther habitable orbital distances, however, could be still be subject to harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation, particularly from stellar flares. As a result, plants that evolved in such systems would need to develop UV-blocking sun-screens to coat their surfaces on in their tissues. Even so, photosynthesising microorganisms may need to move during a sudden flare, especially those lifeforms that developed in aquatic environments subject to frequent flares but become more protected by a thicker layer of water overhead if they can move deeper underwater -- more discussion below). (See also: Royal Astronomical Society news releases of and ; University of St. Andrews ; and )

Photosynthesis: Light and Dark Reactions Flashcards | Quizlet

During the process of photosynthesis, the chlorophyll absorbs sunlight to produce molecules of energy.

Depending on a main sequence star's spectral type, even a planet with 's atmospheric composition may be colored differently. In general, larger and more massive, main-sequence ("dwarf") stars have hotter surface temperatures than our Sun, , and so they radiate more photons, particularly towards the more energetic, bluish end of the spectrum. As a result of their greater luminosity, Earth-like planets would orbit farther away from hotter dwarf stars to avoid getting scorched, but their skies would still appear bluish due to of abundant bluish photons. Around smaller, less massive and dimmer dwarf stars, however, planets would have to orbit closer in order to sustain a surface temperature that is warm enough to keep water liquid and so the star would appear larger in the sky. In addition, stars with surface temperatures of 3,300 kelvins or lower (red dwarfs of spectral type M2.5 such as , or redder) would emit so fewer photons towards the bluish wavelengths compared to Sol that the sky would appear whitish down to reddish to Human eyes (more from ). If comparatively more bluish or reddish light reaches a planet's surface than on Earth, photosynthetic plant-type life may may not be greenish in color, because such life will have evolved to different pigments in order to optimize their use of available and so color the appearance of the planet's land surfaces accordingly.

The Sun ( G2) radiates light in a particular distribution of colors, emitting more of some colors than others. Gases in Earth's atmosphere subsequently filter that sunlight, absorbing some colors (wavelengths), and so more red light photons reach Earth's surface than blue or green ones. Not surprisingly then, photosynthetic life on Earth's land surfaces such as plants (which includes multicellular organisms from grass to trees) tends to depend mostly on red light, because it is the most abundant wavelength reaching the surface, and on blue light, because it is the most energetic. Earth plants also absorb green light, but not as strongly, so leaves look green to the eye, having adapted to the conditions most commonly found around our Sun and on Earth's planetary surface. As most stars do not have the same distribution of light in color wavelengths as our Sun, however, some researchers hypothesize that photosynthetic life on extrasolar planets will not necessarily have the same colors as on Earth.

Photosynthetic: Light reactions/Dark reactions | New …
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Photosynthesis Quiz- Light and Dark Reactions …

Autumnal to bluish colors. Main sequence stars brighter than the Sun (spectral types F and A and the very short-lived B and O) emit more blue and ultraviolet light than the Sun. Given sufficient time for Earth-type photosynthetic life to evolve (e.g., hundreds of millions to billions of years), planets around such stars could develop an oxygen atmosphere with a layer of ozone that blocks more energetic but potentially harmful ultraviolet but transmits more blue light to the ground than on the Earth. In response, life could evolve a type of photosynthesis that strongly absorbs blue light, and probably green as well. In contrast, yellow, orange, and red wavelengths of light would likely be reflected by such plants, so the foliage would have the bright colors found during autumn in Earth's deciduous forests all year round. On the other hand, some plants may reflect some blue light due to its overabundance and potential to "burn" photosynthetic organisms (e.g., like sunburn from ultraviolet exposure on Earth).

09/07/2013 · Photosynthetic: Light reactions/Dark ..

Extraterrestrial photosynthetic plant-type life may look quite look different in color because they will have evolved their own pigments based on the colors of light reaching their surfaces. of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Sciences has modelled the light reaching the surfaces of Earth-sized worlds orbiting their host stars at distances hospitable to Earth-type life, where liquid water could exist on a planetary surface, where depending on the star's brightness (and color) and the planet's atmosphere. Kiang found that "plants" on Earth-like planets orbiting stars somewhat brighter and bluer than the Sun might look yellow or orange, and even look bluish by reflecting a dangerous overabundance of more energetic blue light. On the other hand, plants on planets orbiting stars much fainter and redder than the Sun might look black. Hence, astrobiologists seeking signs of life on planets outside the Solar System may want to look for colors reflected by planetary vegetation that is colored differently than the green wavelengths found on Earth (NASA/GSFC ; Spitzer ; ; ;; and ).

Photosynthesis Review: The Light and Dark Reactions

The simulations indicated that habitable planets in multi-star systems could host exotic forms of the more familiar plants found on Earth. As indicated in NASA studies announced in 2007, plants evolved under dim red dwarf suns or in more distance habitable orbits around a brighter star may appear black to Human eyes because they would probably need to absorbing more parts of the visible wavelength range to more effectively exploit as much of the available light as possible. Indeed, some in particularly dim environments may also evolve to use energy from infrared or ultraviolet radiation to power photosynthesis.

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