Call us toll-free

Quick academic help

Don't let the stress of school get you down! Have your essay written by a professional writer before the deadline arrives.

Calculate the price


275 Words


Photosynthesis and photosystem 2 and 1 - Answers - The …

Hillier W and Messinger J (2005) Mechanism of photosynthetic oxygen production. In: Wydrzynski T and Satoh K (eds) Photosystem II. The Light‐Driven Water: Plastoquinone Oxidoreductase, Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, vol. 22, pp. 567–608. The Netherlands: Springer.

Light and dark reactions in photosynthesis - …

Photosystem II (PSII) is a specialized protein complex that uses light energy to drive the transfer of electrons from water to plastoquinone, resulting in the production of oxygen and the release of reduced plastoquinone into the photosynthetic membrane. The key components of the PSII complex include a peripheral antenna system that employs chlorophyll and other pigment molecules to absorb light, a reaction centre at the core of the complex that is the site of the initial electron transfer reactions, an Mn4OCa cluster that catalyses water oxidation and a binding pocket for the reduction of plastoquinone. PSII is the sole source of oxygen production in all oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, which include plants, algae and cyanobacteria. In these organisms, PSII operates in series with other protein complexes, including the PSI reaction centre, to produce the reduced form of nicotenamide–adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is used in the Calvin–Benson cycle to produce carbohydrates from carbon dioxide.

Light-dependent reactions (light reactions) 2

This paper will explain the basic components require for photosynthesis, the role of chlorophyll, how energy is transferred, and photosystems I and II and the most precious product results of photosynthesis.

Photophosphorylation is the production of ATP using the energy of sunlight. Photophosphorylation is made possible as a result of chemiosmosis. Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their concentration gradient. During photosynthesis, light is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules. Electrons within these molecules are then raised to a higher energy state. These electrons then travel through Photosystem II, a chain of electron carriers and Photosystem I. As the electrons travel through the chain of electron carriers, they release energy. This energy is used to pump hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane and into the space within the thylakoid. A concentration gradient of hydrogen ions forms within this space. These then move back across the thylakoid membrane, down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase. ATP synthase uses the energy released from the movement of hydrogen ions down their concentration gradient to synthesise ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

Photosystems I and II - Encyclopedia Britannica

Suzuki H, Sugiura M and Noguchi T (2009) Monitoring proton release during photosynthetic water oxidation in photosystem II by means of isotope‐edited infrared spectroscopy. Journal of the American Chemical Society 131: 7849–7857.

Photosynthesis occurs inside chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, a green pigment found inside the thylakoid membranes. These chlorophyll molecules are arranged in groups called photosystems. There are two types of photosystems, Photosystem II and Photosystem I. When a chlorophyll molecule absorbs light, the energy from this light raises an electron within the chlorophyll molecule to a higher energy state. The chlorophyll molecule is then said to be photoactivated. Excited electron anywhere within the photosystem are then passed on from one chlorophyll molecule to the next until they reach a special chlorophyll molecule at the reaction centre of the photosystem. This special chlorophyll molecule then passes on the excited electron to a chain of electron carriers.

Order now

    As soon as we have completed your work, it will be proofread and given a thorough scan for plagiarism.


    Our clients' personal information is kept confidential, so rest assured that no one will find out about our cooperation.


    We write everything from scratch. You'll be sure to receive a plagiarism-free paper every time you place an order.


    We will complete your paper on time, giving you total peace of mind with every assignment you entrust us with.


    Want something changed in your paper? Request as many revisions as you want until you're completely satisfied with the outcome.

  • 24/7 SUPPORT

    We're always here to help you solve any possible issue. Feel free to give us a call or write a message in chat.

Order now

Photosynthesis — bozemanscience

Van Rensen JJS, Xu C and Govindjee (1999) Role of bicarbonate in photosystem II, the water‐plastoquinone oxido‐reductase of plant photosynthesis. Physiologia Plantarum 105: 585–592.

photosynthesis notes - Biology Junction

Wydrzynski T and Satoh K (eds) (2005) Photosystem II: the light‐driven water: plastoquinone oxidoreductase. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration (Series ed., Govindjee) vol. 22. Dordrecht: Springer.

Order now
  • You submit your order instructions

  • We assign an appropriate expert

  • The expert takes care of your task

  • We send it to you upon completion

Order now
  • 37 684

    Delivered orders

  • 763

    Professional writers

  • 311

    Writers online

  • 4.8/5

    Average quality score

Order now
  • Kim

    "I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."

  • Paul

    "Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."

  • Ellen

    "Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."

  • Joyce

    "Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."

  • Albert

    "Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."

  • Mary

    "Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."

Ready to tackle your homework?

Place an order