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Difference between Photosystem I and Photosystem II ..

I know of no more informative contrast between industrial and preindustrial economies than comparing the USA’s North and South on the eve of its Civil War. The North had a vibrant, industrializing economy that quickly became history’s greatest, with its labor nominally free, and the South had a relatively moribund economy based on slave labor. The North used its industrial capacity to grind down the South in a war of attrition, just as . Superior industrial capacity, which is rooted in energy supplies, has won all major wars during the past two centuries. World War I ended when the , and much of the war was devoted to cutting off the other belligerents’ oil supplies. When Germany surrendered, it had one day’s worth of fuel. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941 only after the , and Germany lost World War II after its , and the Nazis simply ran out of fuel. Cutting off access to hydrocarbons, oil in particular, was the industrial equivalent of starving out the enemy in a siege, or how continually tried to cut off the other's access to wood. Oil has been humanity’s , and explains imperial meddling and warfare in the Middle East. All other factors are irrelevant or of extremely minor importance and are often promoted in an attempt to deceive uninformed observers such as the American public; proximate causes, if not entirely fictional to begin with, in those delusion-inducing analyses.

Photosystem II (PS II); cytochrome b6f(Cyt b6f); photosystem (PS I); ATP synthase; and Rubisco.

Trees first appeared during a plant diversity crisis, and the arrival of seed plants and ferns ended the dominance of the first trees, so the plant crises may have been more about evolutionary experiments than environmental conditions, although a carbon dioxide crash and ice age conditions would have impacted photosynthesizers. The that gave rise to trees and seed plants largely went extinct at the Devonian’s end. But what might have been the most dramatic extinction, as far as humans are concerned, was the impact on land vertebrates. During the about 20% of all families, 50% of all genera, and 70% of all species disappeared forever.

A comparison between plant photosystem I and photosystem II …

Below is a diagram of the photosynthetic process in grass. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

elongatus PSII; cyanobacterial), Standfuss et al., (2005; spinach LHCII; higher plant), Stroebel et al., (2003; Chlamydomonas Cyt b6f; green algal), Jordan et al., (2001; T.

16(12):645-655


Major proteins and protein complexes of the chloroplast photosynthetic apparatus of a higher plant exemplified by Arabidopsis thaliana.

One of the first stages of photosynthesis involves Photosystem II

Lhcb refers to the outer, peripheral, light-harvesting, chlorophyll a– and b– and carotenoid–binding polypeptides of photosystem II.

As with enzymes, the molecules used in biological processes are often huge and complex, but ATP energy drives all processes and that energy came from either potential chemical energy in Earth’s interior or sunlight, but even chemosynthetic organisms rely on sunlight to provide their energy. The Sun thus powers all life on Earth. The cycles that capture energy (photosynthesis or chemosynthesis) or produce it (fermentation or respiration) generally have many steps in them, and some cycles can run backwards, such as the . Below is a diagram of the citric acid (Krebs) cycle. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

The respiration and photosynthesis cycles in complex organisms have been the focus of a great deal of scientific effort, and cyclic diagrams (, ) can provide helpful portrayals of how cycles work. Photosynthesis has several cycles in it, and Nobel Prizes were awarded to the scientists who helped describe the cycles. Chlorophyll molecules , with magnesium in their porphyrin cages, and long tails. Below is a diagram of a chlorophyll molecule. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Hawaiian islands
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The oxygen we breathe is a product of the Photosystem II reaction

The ecosystems may not have recovered from Olson’s Extinction of 270 mya, and at 260 mya came another mass extinction that is called the mid-Permian or extinction, or the , although a recent study found only one extinction event, in the mid-Capitanian. In the 1990s, the extinction was thought to result from falling sea levels. But the first of the two huge volcanic events coincided with the event, in . There can be several deadly outcomes of major volcanic events. As with an , massive volcanic events can block sunlight with the ash and create wintry conditions in the middle of summer. That alone can cause catastrophic conditions for life, but that is only one potential outcome of volcanism. What probably had far greater impact were the gases belched into the air. As oxygen levels crashed in the late Permian, there was also a huge carbon dioxide spike, as shown by , and the late-Permian volcanism is the near-unanimous choice as the primary reason. That would have helped create super-greenhouse conditions that perhaps came right on the heels of the volcanic winter. Not only would carbon dioxide vent from the mantle, as with all volcanism, but the late-Permian volcanism occurred beneath Ediacaran and Cambrian hydrocarbon deposits, which burned them and spewed even more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Not only that, great salt deposits from the Cambrian Period were also burned via the volcanism, which created hydrochloric acid clouds. Volcanoes also spew sulfur, which reacts with oxygen and water to form . The oceans around the volcanoes would have become acidic, and that fire-and-brimstone brew would have also showered the land. Not only that, but the warming initiated by the initial carbon dioxide spike could have then warmed up the oceans enough so that methane hydrates were liberated and create even more global warming. Such global warming apparently warmed the poles, which not only melted away the last ice caps and ended an ice age that had , but deciduous forests are in evidence at high latitudes. A 100-million-year Icehouse Earth period ended and a 200-million-year Greenhouse Earth period began, but the transition appears to have been chaotic, with wild swings in greenhouse gas levels and global temperatures. Warming the poles would have lessened the heat differential between the equator and poles and further diminished the lazy Panthalassic currents. The landlocked Paleo-Tethys and Tethys oceans, and perhaps even the Panthalassic Ocean, may have all become superheated and anoxic as the currents died. Huge also happened, which may have and led to ultraviolet light damage to land plants and animals. That was all on top of the oxygen crash. With the current state of research, all of the above events may have happened, in the greatest confluence of life-hostile conditions during the eon of complex life. A recent study suggests that the extinction event that ended the Permian may have lasted only 60,000 years or so. In 2001, a bolide event was proposed for the Permian extinction with great fanfare, but it does not appear to be related to the Permian extinction; the other dynamics would have been quite sufficient. The Permian extinction was the greatest catastrophe that Earth’s life experienced since the previous supercontinent existed in the .

Photosynthetic Electron Transport and ATP Synthesis

Also, the formation of Pangaea ( regarding what processes ) may have led to the dynamics that broke it apart. The Hawaiian Islands are that began forming more than 80 mya, and is due to a hotspot bubbling up from Earth’s mantle. Although the is , a prominent hypothesis is that the formation of Pangaea plugged hotspots and prevented heat from venting from Earth’s core, which led to a swelling and fracturing Pangaea. Part of the evidence for that hypothesis was relatively sudden and widespread volcanism sprouting up around Pangaea, which followed a known fracture pattern around such crustal upwellings. The volcanism and resultant fracture lines formed today’s continents. As can be seen in the during the late Permian, what became China and Siberia were on the northeast margins of Pangaea, bordering the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, and two volcanic events arising from China and Siberia are currently favored as key proximate causes of the Permian extinctions.

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