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Until the 20th century, people had no idea how their activities impacted a portion of their environment that may end up hastening humanity’s demise more than self-made deserts: the atmosphere. Agriculture and civilization meant deforestation, and there is compelling evidence that the Domestication Revolution began altering the composition of Earth’s atmosphere from its earliest days. The natural trend of carbon dioxide decline was reversed beginning about 6000 BCE. Instead of declining from about 260 PPM at 6000 BCE to about 240 PPM today, which would have been the natural trend, it began rising and reached 275 PPM by about 3000 BCE. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were about 40 PPM higher than the natural trend would suggest. When a forest is razed and the resultant wood is burned, which is usually wood’s ultimate fate in civilizations, it liberated carbon that the tree absorbed from the atmosphere during . , and human activities began measurably adding methane to the atmosphere by about 3000 BCE, which coincided with the rise of the rice paddy system in China. In nature, methane is primarily produced by decaying vegetation in wetlands, both in the tropics and the Arctic, and human activities have increased wetlands even as they made other regions arid. Domestic grazing animals and human digestive systems also contribute to methane production. Atmospheric alteration by human activities has only come to public awareness in my lifetime, but human activities have had a measurable effect on greenhouse gases since the beginnings of civilization, even though the effects were modest compared to what has happened during the Industrial Revolution, as humans burn Earth’s hydrocarbon deposits with abandon.

GENERAL QUESTIONS REGARDING SCIENCE

The ultimate cause is levels. The first proximate cause was probably . The second proximate cause was probably the . The third proximate cause is .

"Do not be anxious about anything..." Philippians 4:6

The BSc (Hons) Logopaedics program at University of Cape Town degree consisted of:

Many human mental traits exist in more rudimentary form in other animals, but human thought seems far more complex and sophisticated. Feats such as language with grammar may be a unique human achievement, which provides evidence of the greater mental ability of humans, and our tools provide the best evidence of advanced human cognitive abilities.

The study of intelligence is a young science, and the relationship of brain size (both absolute and relative) and structure to what is called intelligence is currently subject to a great deal of research and controversy, and even the is hotly debated. The appeared with mammals, and is the key structural aspect of brain evolution that led to human intelligence. The attempts to determine which , and those suspected of being the most intelligent have passed the test, including all great apes, cetaceans, elephants, and even a bird. Humans do not pass the mirror test until about 18 months of age. There is great debate between those embracing "rich" versus "lean" interpretations of behavior and intelligence observations among animals, in which seemingly complex thinking can be an illusion.

2. - The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918.

1. Through focussed, determined mind action, the brain can be stimulated to change.

Capitalism radically changed the way that people worked. While court historians for capitalism glossed over the awesome human toll of industrialization, some dissent came from ignored corners until Marx. In the 20th century, histories that focused on working class struggles against the capitalists were in the great minority and never promoted by capitalist-controlled presses. The British had a working-class press , after governmental efforts failed to destroy it. The USA has never had a working-class press, and works such as Howard Zinn’s only appeared late in the 20th century. , including factory work as a boy and his father’s incarceration in a debtor’s prison, to write his great works.

To an overwhelming extent, energy powering machines the Industrial Revolution and remains so to this day, whether it is computers, the Internet, airplanes, rockets, factories, electric plants – either hydrocarbon-, hydroelectric-, or fission-powered – automobiles, trains, mining and oilfield equipment, farming equipment, household appliances, and so on. Even the industrial world’s materials are energy-intensive, as materials become more expensive .

4. We are not victims of our biology; we are victors over our biology.
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3. The Spiritual Man – June 1, 1968 Watchman Nee

Hunter-gatherer lands are far more sparsely populated than agricultural or industrial lands because of how much energy people can extract from their environments. Japanese rice farmers can extract 10 thousand times as much food energy from a hectare of land as Cro-Magnon hunter-gatherers could. At Japanese rice farmer levels of productivity, the yard of the home I was raised in could have met my family’s food requirements.

Nova- Ghost In Your Genes, 2006

As ice sheets retreated and today’s interglacial period began, humans already at the margins of those ice age environments as far as they could. From then until Europe , there were few mass migrations of note, such as the in Africa, when , and when agricultural peoples displaced hunter-gatherers, particularly in Australia and . But even with those migrations, it could be more of a cultural and technological migration than a human one, in which the “invaded” peoples adopted the often energetically superior practices of the “invaders” rather than being replaced by them. Genetic testing has shown that this was (although ), which has been one of the greater surprises of global genetic testing, although the research is in its early days, and more controversial findings are sure to come.

**This is informative and NOT individual medical advice.

Anthropologists have derived these reasons why societies go to war: defense, plunder, prestige, and control. Only states have control as a motive, because they can only tax sedentary peoples with economic surpluses. “Defense” is a motive (retaliation and revenge also neatly fit into this category), which is economic, plunder is nakedly economic, and prestige only reinforces or enhances a man’s economic status. So, motives for war are ultimately economic in nature. All wars had some kind of proximate cause, some triggering event that began the hostilities, and feuds could last for generations, but when the bickering and noise was removed from the signal, nonliterate societies, just like civilized ones, fought primarily for economic reasons, and resource access was always first and foremost. Because land is the source of all wealth (particularly in preindustrial civilizations), as it is where the energy comes from, all societies, from the smallest band of hunter-gatherers to today’s modern states, , which is . It has been that way and may have begun with some of the earliest social animals. At the bottom of it all, all people instinctually know that it is about economics, with the rest just noise, if sometimes pleasantly diverting noise.

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As the megafauna that fueled humanity’s global expansion went extinct, all human populations became relatively immobile, and even hunter-gatherers had proscribed ranges. There were no more virgin continents to fill with people, and then humans began to turn on each other in earnest as they fought over their reduced energy supplies. Between the and the human warfare of the late hunter-gatherer phase, there seems to have been an intermediate stage that lasted from up to a million years ago among . Until hunter-gatherers began forming segmented societies (with some hierarchy) in the past 30 thousand years or so, the risks of killing one’s neighbor outweighed the advantages, especially when resolving conflicts meant easily moving to new, unoccupied lands. Although there was probably plenty of interpersonal violence, warfare did not appear until there was resource competition among the humans that conquered Earth. It is even speculated that when left Africa nearly two mya, it .

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