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Photosynthesis and Respiration Scenario Summary …
The graphic above shows a small segment of a photosynthetic apparatus, which includes a reaction center that is surrounded by an LH1 ring, and close by are three LH2 rings. The LH1 ring basically acts as a system of antennae, feeding excitation to the reaction center. But in the dark habitats that these purple bacteria live infor example, in the bottom of pondsmore feeder systems evolved, namely LH2s, to channel additional excitation energy to the LH1 and then to the reaction center. In the work Strümpfer and Schulten did on excitation transfer, they looked at transfer in two distinct forms: how excitation travels within a ring, and how excitation travels from one ring to another. And they found some surprising results.
The result of any pH test is only an indication, as the pH can vary at different times of the day depending upon photosynthesis and the respiration of flora and fauna. To get an average reading, it is best to test the pH level early in the morning when it will be at its lowest and again at dusk when it will be at its highest. The majority of ponds tend to be on the acid side, but if your average readings suggest your pond is on the alkaline side, you can still use Aquaplancton, in these cases the pH tends to stay about the same and in any case will not increase beyond a maximum of 8.3 which is within the comfort scale for your fish. If the pH is less than 5.0 or higher than 11.0 it is unlikely that your fish will survive.
Demonstrating Oxygen Evolution during Photosynthesis …
Instead of plants, Schulten chose to study purple bacteria, which embody the simplest form of photosynthesis. Bacteria emerged around 3.5 billion years ago on the earth; photosynthesis, an ancient process, arose sometime thereafter, although no firm evidence exists to prove its exact origins. While many associate it with plants, photosynthesis most likely originated in bacteria, and photosynthesis is found in many different phyla of bacteria today, purple bacteria being one of them. The purple bacteria are a gift for scientists studying photosynthesis, as the machine or unit that runs photosynthesis in these bacteria is simpler than the ones in plants.
One of the areas of study Karplus chose to pursue after his stay in Israel was the role of retinal in vision. Retinal is related to the carotenoids, for basically half a carotenoid molecule is vitamin A, and when oxidized vitamin A becomes retinal. Retinal also is one example of a polyene, a type of chemical compound with multiple carbon-carbon bonds. Polyenes play key roles in light absorption in vision as well as in photosynthesis. Studying polyenes would become a major focus of the Karplus group at Harvard.
LIMING PONDS -- ALKALINITY & HARDNESS
A chromatophore is a complete cellular compartment that's part of a bacterial photosynthetic membrane. “It's essentially a machine that captures sunlight and converts it to chemically stored energy in the form of ATP, and it does so by a number of cooperating proteins,” Sener says. Similar to an organelle in eukaryotes, in bacteria this chromatophore is termed a pseudo-organelle. The chromatophore that Sener began working on is found in the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, contains several hundred proteins, and has a spherical shape that is in vesicle format, although not all chromatophores are spherical. One of the main tasks that Sener faced in the modeling project he light-heartedly compares to the forensics of road kill.
When Schulten moved to Illinois in 1988 he eventually met two scientists there at the university who also worked on photosynthesis: Antony Crofts and Colin Wraight, both from the School of Molecular and Cellular Biology. Schulten even published a photosynthesis paper in 1999 with Crofts. When Colin Wraight invited Schulten to a dinner in honor of a visitor from Sheffield, Schulten and the guest from England struck up a conversation about their respective work in photosynthesis. Neil Hunter, an experimentalist, was at that point in time imaging a structure called a chromatophore that was central to photosynthetic function in purple bacteria. Always on the lookout for collaborators, Schulten and Hunter decided to join forces to model the chromatophore.
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Acidity/Alkalinity and pH levels in Ponds | …
First, a few facts about fish and oxygen. Oxygen in water is measuredin parts per million (ppm). The amount of oxygen dissolved in water isusually in the range of 3 to 10 ppm. Commonly accepted lower limits forfish survival are 5 ppm for most warm-water fishes (bass, carp, crappie,catfish, etc.) and 7 ppm for cold-water species ( salmon, steelhead, troutand sturgeon).
pH stands for Potential Hydrogen
Oxygen is naturally added to aquatic ecosystems by aquatic plants and algae through the process of photosynthesis; and by diffusion at the water’s surface and atmosphere interface. Animal, plant and bacteria respiration deplete oxygen. Adding oxygen to your pond, lake, canal, marina or reservoir water with bottom diffused aeration can help reduce the nutrients that promote algae growth by speeding up the breakdown of organic matter at the bottom, reducing the nutrient rich muck buildup. Removing 'stratification' through aeration also balances the pH levels and ensures that fish and other organisms have the oxygen they need at all levels throughout the year.
The Effect of Algae on the pH | Healthfully
Being shallow allows a pond’s water temperature to remain about the same everywhere in the pond. The pond’s water temperature changes quickly as air temperature goes up or down. Dissolved oxygen in a pond can also change fast. Underwater life depends on oxygen in the water. The main sources of dissolved oxygen are surface air and photosynthesis by plants and algae in the water.
How to Show Oxygen Is a By Product of Photosynthesis …
Another source of oxygen is aquatic plants and phytoplankton. These organisms give off oxygen in the water as a byproduct of photosynthesis.
Lakes and Ponds Lessons by Pond Experts & Pond …
A pond’s oxygen levels can vary widely over the course of a day. This happens because during the day air from the surface and oxygen from plants is constantly replenishing the dissolved oxygen consumed by animals and by aerobic decomposition of detritus and other decaying matter. Plants stop producing oxygen at night because photosynthesis requires sunlight. During the night oxygen continues to be used by animals and aerobic decomposition. This results in many ponds having higher dissolved oxygen levels in the day than at night.
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