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(what is stomata?)How do plants make food (photosynthesis basics)?

Plants grown with reservoir hydroponics grow at about the same rate aswicks or other active hydroponic methods, with much less effort required,since it is by far the simplest of hydroponic methods.

How do plants make food (photosynthesis basics)?

Photosynthesis does the opposite of respiration. Carbon dioxide is absorbed and oxygen is produced. In order to study respiration in green plants we must block out the light, because although green plants respire all the time they only photosynthesize in the light.

In plants, hormones are responsible for all sorts of things, lik...

Needle-shaped leaves have a very low light absorptive surface area. Each needle, then, is not able to capture very much sunlight energy for photosynthesis. Needles also have a very thick, outer cuticle coating and special "pit-like" stomatae designed to prevent excessive water loss. Trees with needle-shaped leaves are especially well suited to site's that have drier soils and to climates in which the careful conservation of water is an important survival strategy. Needle-shaped leaves also differ from broad leaves (in our climate zone anyway) in that needles last for three or four years while broad leaves only "live" for a single growing season. These 'evergreen" needled trees, then, have a great advantage over the "deciduous" broad leafed trees in that the metabolic cost of the leaf's synthesis can be recovered via photosynthesis over several growing seasons. Also, the continuous presence of the needles means that whenever environmental conditions are sufficiently moderate (even in the middle of winter!) the needles can photosynthesize and thus gather energy for the tree! A study in Germany compared energy production in beech trees (which have broad, flat leaves) and Norway spruce trees (which have needles). It was found that the beech trees photosynthesize for 176 days in a year while the Norway spruce photosynthesize 260 days in a year! The bottom energy line was that with this increased time base for photosynthesis, the smaller leafed surface area of the Norway spruce was actually 58% more productive than the beech!

Every autumn we revel in the beauty of the fall colors. The mixture of red, purple, orange and yellow is the result of chemical processes that take place in the tree as the seasons change from summer to winter.

Effects of different colors of light on plant growth.

During the spring and summer the leaves have served as factories where most of the foods necessary for the tree's growth are manufactured. This food-making process takes place in the leaf in numerous cells containing chlorophyll, which gives the leaf its green color. This extraordinary chemical absorbs from sunlight the energy that is used in transforming carbon dioxide and water to carbohydrates, such as sugars and starch.

All parts of the plant respire, the leaves, the stem, the roots and even the flowers. The parts above the soil get their oxygen directly from the air through pores. The pores in the leaves are called stomata (singular: stoma). The pores in the branches of trees are called lenticels.

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Which plant life cycles have alternation of generations?...

The drawing shows a leaf of a ficus plant. A small part of the underside of the leaf has been magnified to show the stomata. The average number of stomata per mm2 of leaf is around 300. The smallest number is found on leaves which have 14 per mm2 . The highest number of stomata is found on the leaves of the Spanish oak tree. Here there are around 1200 per mm2 .

Effect of different colors of light on the rate of photosynthesis.

The roots of a plant also need oxygen which they obtain from the air spaces in the soil. If you give too much water to a plant in a pot you could kill the roots by drowning them! Plants, such as rice, which normally grow in wet soil often have air spaces in their roots. This is so that they can carry air from the atmosphere down to the root tips to be able to respire under water.

Measuring Photosynthesis in sun andshade leaves

But in the fall, because of changes in the length of daylight and changes in temperature, the leaves stop their food-making process. The chlorophyll breaks down, the green color disappears, and the yellow to orange colors become visible and give the leaves part of their fall splendor.

Compare the affects of types of artificial light on plant growth.

The autumn foliage of some trees show only yellow colors. Others, like many oaks, display mostly browns. All these colors are due to the mixing of varying amounts of the chlorophyll residue and other pigments in the leaf during the fall season.

Measuring Photosynthesis in sunand shade leaves:

Most of the broad-leaved trees in the North shed their leaves in the fall. However, the dead brown leaves of the oaks and a few other species may stay on the tree until growth starts again in the spring. In the South, where the winters are mild, some of the broad-leaved trees are evergreen; that is, the leaves stay on the trees during winter and keep their green color.

Effects of different colors of light on the photosynthesis rate.

In this experiment youwill compare leaves of the same plant that have grown in high light andlow light environments, and will observe that the low light plant has adaptedto increase its efficiency of light capture for photosynthesis.

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