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congress on Photosynthesis, Beijing 2010
Several plant lineages evolved the ability to obtain carbon from the mycorrhizal fungi in their roots. These mycoheterotrophic plants provide outstanding opportunities for studying convergent evolution (representing at least 47 losses of photosynthesis in land plants, likely far exceeding the number of origins of parasitic plants), plant-microbe interactions (typically they indirectly parasitize green plants through shared mycorrhizal fungi), conservation biology (there are many rare and poorly known lineages), plant morphology and anatomy (unusual reductions in vegetative form; adaptations for plant-fungal interactions; floral modifications), evolution, systematics and phylogeny (e.g., modification, reduction and rate elevation in plastid and other plant genomes), and biogeography (disjunct distributions). Crucial developments in the fields of ecology and evolution have led to significant progress in our understanding of mycoheterotrophic plants. Here we pull together recent insights on these fascinating organisms in an intregrative symposium on their biology.
INTERPRETATION, INTERRELATIONSHIP AND REPRESENTATION OF PLANTS AS SYMBOLS IN DIFFERENT CULTURAL EXPRESSIONSAll cultures have some myth or tales related with nature and humans. In the context of the social imagination, mankind has taken the plants as symbols and endowed them with an extraordinary and powerful personality. The genetic or ancestral memory, the racial memory as well as the cultural memory of society, play a fundamental role in the perception of plants and in the creation of myths about them. Ancestral myths evolve, regress and get new perception through time and come up to our days with the same power they have born. The Symposium I am proposing will cover several aspects of the interpretation of the plant as a symbol in different cultural expressions such mythology, literature, fiction novel, poetry, religion, music, graphic arts, horoscope and others. This field of work is very exciting because there are several connections between plants and cultures, such as this example among others: 1) Citing of plants in mythological tales; 2) Genera, species or other taxonomic range given by botanists in honor to mythological characters; 3) Botanical terms related to mythology; 4) Mythological gods or goddesses associated with nature, trees, gardens and orchards; 5) Metamorphosis of mythological characters in plants; 6) Plants as symbolic elements of feelings in joyful and sad moments; 7) Plants in different religions; 8) Plants or flowers in poems and songs; 9) Flowers in literary works, films and operas; 10) Plants in horoscopes; 11) Plants used in comics and cartoons; 12) Plants as elements of luck, misfortune or power in different cultures; 13) Plants names used metaphorically in slang language to define attitudes or moods; 14) Plants represented through the eyes of the artists.
15th International Congress of Photosynthesis
Parasitic plants strictly refer to plants using haustoria to get nutrition from roots or stems of other living plants. Plant parasites can be hemiparasitic (semiparasitic) with photosynthetic leaves (such as mistletoe), or holoparasitic and completely dependent on their host (such as broomrape). Parasitism has been evolved at least 12 times in flowering plants. Around 4500 species, representing 12 orders 27 families, have been recognized as parasitic. Origin of parasitism remains unclear. Meanwhile, some parasitic weeds made disastrous economic damage in agriculture. To enforce research on parasitic plants, International Parasitic Plant Society launches an international conference every two years. In the XIX IBC, we would like to organize a Symposium entitled “Ecology and Evolution of Parasitic Plants”.
Recent studies have demonstrated that fungi are extremely important in all ecosystems and in particular for plants. Based on studies of the endophytic mycobiota, combining classical morphology with modern molecular phylogeny and bioprospecting have revealed an immense, unprecedented mycodiversity. This has led to the discovery of various unprecedented bioactive molecules that could serve well as lead candidates for agrochemical and pharmaceutical development. Fungal endophytes have also raised great interest with respect to their potential utility as candidates for biocontrol agents, biofertilisers, industrial enzyme production, and biofuel producing agents. On the other hand, a combination of morphological, molecular and chemical methodologies also serves well for recognition of newly arising pathogens that are now posing a serious threat to global agriculture, and for in-depth characterization of myxotoxin producing fungi. Regarding basic research, the data generated in the course of modern polythetic taxonomic studies will also serve well as references for molecular ecology studies that aim at identifying the respective fungi in the host plant. In the near future, phylogenomic studies will complement our knowledge on the correlations between salient phenotypic and corresponding genotypic features,.The proposed symposium is designed to attract leading mycologists from around the world, who are working on evolutionary aspects and/ or applied mycology. Aside from the proposers, some other leading research groups such as those of M. J. Wingfield (South Africa), P. W. Crous (Netherlands) and K. D. Hyde (Thailand), and A. Miller (USA) will be asked to contribute .
15th International Congress of Photosynthesis 22 - 27 August 2010, ..
The current International Photosynthesis Congress is sponsored by the IBCAS and the International Society of Photosynthesis Research (ISPR). It lasts for six days. The photosynthesis Research —— Food, Fuel and Future is the theme of this Congress. About one thousand participants from 42 countries joined it. The Nobel Chemistry Prize winner, Dr. John Walker, and 14 other international distinguished specialists are invited to give plenary lectures. The Congress contained 26 research fields and 134 symposia. 576 summaries and more than 500 posters has been received.
The International Photosynthesis Congress is held every 3 years. This is the first time for China holding it. It means that our photosynthesis research is admitted increasingly by international peers. The Congress provides a platform for specialists and scholars to communicate and cooperate. And it also provides a chance for scholars from all over the world to know better about the progress of our photosynthesis research.
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The aims of the 15th International Congress of Photosynthesis ..
Polyploidy has long been recognized as an evolutionary process in plant genome evolution. Since the last International Botanical Congress, there has been an explosion of genomic and genetic studies that have demonstrated that whole genome duplications have occurred much more often than previously suspected in lineages of plants and animals. Given this recognition of widespread paleopolyploidy, new questions and research opportunities appear about the consequences of ancient genome doubling. What are the patterns and processes associated with paleopolyploidy? As polyploid genomes return to a diploid state over time, to what degree are there common patterns of gene and network evolution across taxa, and to what degree is each lineage a special divergent case? Despite the enormous datasets now available, polyploid genome evolution remains highly controversial. Indeed, numerous theories have been put forth that cover an extreme range of alternatives: polyploidy is adaptive and drives diversification, polyploidy is detrimental and lead to evolutionary dead-ends, and polyploidy is largely a neutral phenomena. In this symposium, experts from across the globe confront these and related issues using an array of bioinformatic approaches. Collectively, we aim at several levels of synthesis. First, we integrate wide surveys of polyploidy across the tree of life with deep investigations on the functional consequences of genome doubling in model organisms. Second, we investigate a range of macro-evolutionary and micro-evolutionary phenomena while examining the tempo and mode of paleopolyploidy and neopolyploidy.
Congress on Photosynthesis, July 23-27, 2010, Beijing…
The evolutionary consequences of hybridization, and more specifically distinguishing hybridization and introgression from incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), are one of the most prevalent topics in phylogenetic analysis. Yet, it is one on which progress made has been modest during the last two decades. Since the early 1990s and the realization of the main forces causing gene-trees to differ from organisms trees (paralogy, ILS, horizontal transfer), the most commonly used approach, in addition to independent direct evidence for hybridization, has been detecting incongruence between differently inherited gene trees from the same organisms. However, this criterion does not always constitute conclusive evidence. Besides, conceptual advances have sometimes limited the validity of assumptions from previously used criteria. For instance, the main hint for hybridization over ILS, besides the current sympatry or geographic proximity between involved species, was that unlike hybridization ILS should affect genes differently because it is a stochastic process. Thus, a concordance in topological patterns across different genes should point towards hybridization. However, discoveries of genome evolution such as its porous nature, whereby not all parts of the genomes are equally introgressed, suggest that when there is introgression all gene trees need not be consistent in their topological patterns. On the other hand, the availability of genome-wide surveys and specifically NGS data as well as the development of coalescent-based phylogenetic approaches have brought new possibilities to tackle the problem. Because basically ILS continues to be the explanation left when hybridization or introgression cannot be documented, new approaches most frequently aim at detecting similarities among species that would be not be expected by chance even in a coalescent scenario. Some of those new approaches have proved useful in simulation and empirical studies of limited size but all need more empirical testing.
2010, XV International Photosynthesis Congress, Beijing, China
Begonia contains 1820 species and is amongst the world’s largest angiosperm genera. The genus has a pantropical distribution, characterised by extremely high rates of narrow endemism. The distribution of Begonia species richness is representative of rainforest diversity generally, being markedly greater in the Neotropics and tropical Asia, and suggests the family is a good proxy for investigating tropical diversification. Much of the research into the generation of large-scale patterns of tropical diversity has focused on trees, however herbaceous layer genera such as Begonia represent an ecologically contrasting aspect of tropical vegetation and need to be included if we are to have a complete understanding of tropical ecosystems. The prevalence of Begonia across the tropics suggests a highly successful strategy in exploiting the niches available to tropical herbs. In order to understand the generation of such a large radiation, we need insights into the interplay of niche evolution, physiology and genome evolution, building on the foundations of a sound taxonomy and robust phylogenetic hypotheses. Preliminary phylogenetic hypotheses for Begonia have been constructed, based on a small number of genome regions. Insights from next generation approaches need to be explored to show us what extent these represent species trees in the light of data on hybridisation and organelle capture. In addition we need to understand the degree of niche differentiation between species with respect to both phylogeny and genomic evolution. In this symposium we aim to bring together a variety of disciplines to give insight into the evolution of Begonia diversity, drawing on recent advances in research of niche evolution, genome dynamism, reproductive biology, photosynthetic physiology, biogeography, and management of biodiversity data. The building of a synthetic picture of evolution in the mega-diverse genus Begonia has the potential to provide a template for understanding broader patterns tropical herbaceous diversity.
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