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Archie R Portis, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA

Respiration refers to the metabolism of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide. In it is a positive term, a process vital to life. But photorespiration is an entirely negative term because it represents a severe loss to the process of using light energy in photosynthetic organisms to fix carbon for subsequent carbohydrate synthesis. By leading to the loss of up to half of the carbon that has been fixed at the expense of light energy, photorespiration undoes the work of photosynthesis.

photosynthesis; photorespiration; chloroplast

Photorespiration happens in when the CO2 concentration drops to about 50 ppm. The key enzyme that accomplishes the fixing of carbon is , and at low concentrations of CO2 it begins to fix oxygen instead.

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Order can be produced with an expenditure of energy, and the order associated with life on the earth is produced with the aid of energy from the sun.

C3 plants have the disadvantage that in hot dry conditions their photosynthetic efficiency suffers because of a process called . When the CO2 concentration in the drops below about 50 ppm, the catalyst that helps to fix carbon begins to fix oxygen instead. This is highly wasteful of the energy that has been collected from the light, and causes the rubisco to operate at perhaps a quarter of its maximal rate.

Record the transmittances in the following table.

The stacks of thylakoids are called grana. They are connected with an extensive sytem of tubules. The thylakoid membranes contain chlorophyll and other arranged in to capture light energy for two photosystems called and . In most plants, both photosystems are used in an that yields energy in the form of and to the stroma of the chloroplast to be used in the synthesis of carbohydrates. The energy is used in the to fix carbon from atmospheric CO2 and construct sugars.

Plants use energy from the sun in tiny energy factories called . The green color of leaves is attributable largely to these chloroplasts because they contain for . Though obviously oversimplified, the illustration depicts the somewhat elongated sausage type shape with large dimension 5-10 μm and smaller dimension 3-4 μm. Moore suggests 40-200 chloroplasts per photosynthetic cell and about 500,000 per square millimeter of leaf area.

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Photosynthesis LECTURE PPT | Photosynthesis | Chloroplast

The problem of photorespiration is overcome in by a two-stage strategy that keeps CO2 high and oxygen low in the chloroplast where the Calvin cycle operates. The class of plants called and the also have better strategies than C3 plants for the avoidance of photorespiration.

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Sugarcane is a champion at photosynthesis under the right conditions and is a prime example of a C4 plant, one which uses C4 photosynthesis. Sugarcane has been recorded at 7% .

The matrix or stoma fills most of the volume of the chloroplast.

There are two membranes, and inside the inner membrane is the gelatanous matrix called the stroma. The stroma contains ribosomes, DNA, and is the location for biochemical synthesis. Membranous sacs called thylakoids are arranged in stacks called grana. The chlorophyll in the thylakoid membranes carries out photosynthesis.

Cell Biology: Chloroplast And Photosynthesis …

C4 plants almost never saturate with light and under hot, dry conditions much outperform . They use a two-stage process were CO2 is fixed in thin-walled mesophyll cells to form a 4-carbon intermediate, typically malate (malic acid). The reaction involves phosphoenol pyruvate () which fixes CO2 in a reaction catalyzed by PEP-carboxylate. It forms oxaloacetic acid (OAA) which is quickly converted to malic acid. The 4-carbon acid is actively pumped across the cell membrane into a thick-walled bundle sheath cell where it is split to CO2 and a 3-carbon compound.

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This CO2 then enters the in a of the bundle sheath cell and produces G3P and subsequently sucrose, starch and other carbohydrates that enter the cells system.

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About 85% of plant species are C3 plants. They include the cereal grains: wheat, rice, barley, oats. Peanuts, cotton, sugar beets, tobacco, spinach, soybeans, and most trees are C3 plants. Most lawn grasses such as rye and fescue are C3 plants.

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