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Photosynthesis Light reaction, Calvin cycle ..

In the photosynthesis and initial carbon fixation occur at night and a 4-carbon acid is stored in the cell's vacuole. During the day, the Calvin cycle operates in the same chloroplasts.

Photosynthesis: Calvin Cycle - Duration: 13:28

Above the maximum carbon dioxide concentration, further increases in carbon dioxide concentration have no further effect on the photosynthesis rate (because either the light-absorbing pigments are saturated and /or the carbon dioxide which is saturating the chloroplasts is limiting the Calvin cycle and/or the temperature is too low).
Because these three factors combine to determine the rate of photosynthesis, maximum rates of photosynthesis can alter if one of the other factors changes.
The rate of photosynthesis is typically measured as the amount of oxygen produced or the amount of carbon dioxide consumed in a given time.
Other environmental factors that can influence photosynthesis are the following.

Photosynthesis-Calvin Cycle and Cyclic Electron Flow …

Photosynthesis - Calvin Cycle - Duration: 6:40.

Dark reactions make use of these organic energy molecules (ATP and NADPH). This reaction cycle is also called Calvin Benison Cycle, and it occurs in the stroma. ATP provides the energy while NADPH provides the electrons required to fix the CO2 (carbon dioxide) into carbohydrates.

The metabolic steps of the Calvin cycle are sometimes referred to as the dark reactions, or fight-independent reactions, because none of the steps requires light directly.

The Calvin cycle (article) | Photosynthesis | Khan Academy

Calvin Cycle Ws | Photosynthesis | Cell Membrane

In the photosynthesis takes place in a chloroplast of a thin-walled mesophyll cell and a 4-carbon acid is handed off to a thick-walled bundle sheath cell where the Calvin cycle occurs in a chloroplast of that second cell. This protects the Calvin cycle from the effects of .

Calvin’s interdisciplinary group appliedthe techniques of many scientific areas to the solution of problems inbiochemistry and molecular biology, in particular elucidation of the pathof carbon in photosynthesis for which Calvin was awarded the Nobel Prize.

Photosynthesis: The Calvin Cycle
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All About the Calvin Cycle - Diagram and Explanation

Close to lower epidermis allowing rapid diffusion of gases into and out of leaf.
In the stroma, the light-independent (Calvin cycle) photosynthetic reactions take place- the bonding of carbon dioxide with hydrogen (from water), and their rearrangement to form glucose, CHO
Chloroplasts are also found in the outer layer of cells (cortex) in the stems of non-woody plants.

Photosynthesis: Calvin Cycle - TES Resources

Carbon dioxide is captured in a cycle of reactions known as the Calvin cycle or the Calvin-Benson cycle after its discoverers. It is also known as just the C3 cycle. Those plants that utilize just the Calvin cycle for carbon fixation are known as . Carbon dioxide diffuses into the stroma of chloroplasts and combines with a five-carbon sugar, ribulose1,5-biphosphate (). The enzyme that catalyzes this reaction is referred to as , a large molecule that may be the most abundant organic molecule on the Earth. This catalyzed reaction produces a 6-carbon intermediate which decays almost immediately to form two molecules of the 3-carbon compound 3-phosphoglyceric acid (). The fact that this 3-carbon molecule is the first stable product of photosynthesis leads to the practice of calling this cycle the C3 cycle.

Calvin Cycle (PHOTOSYNTHESIS) - The Student Room

Above the maximum, further increases in light intensity have no further effect on the photosynthesis rate (because either the light-absorbing pigments are saturated and /or the concentration of carbon dioxide is limiting the Calvin cycle and/or the temperature is too low).

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