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BluePlanet - Chemistry Photosynthesis and Respiration

As with enzymes, the molecules used in biological processes are often huge and complex, but ATP energy drives all processes and that energy came from either potential chemical energy in Earth’s interior or sunlight, but even chemosynthetic organisms rely on sunlight to provide their energy. The Sun thus powers all life on Earth. The cycles that capture energy (photosynthesis or chemosynthesis) or produce it (fermentation or respiration) generally have many steps in them, and some cycles can run backwards, such as the . Below is a diagram of the citric acid (Krebs) cycle. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Explore how photosynthesis works by helping the process along in this game.

These Teacher Notes summarize basic concepts and information related to energy, ATP, cellular respiration, and photosynthesis. These Teacher Notes also review common misconceptions and suggest a sequence of learning activities designed to develop student understanding of important concepts and overcome any misconceptions.

Video: Cellular Respiration - Interactive Biology, with Leslie Samuel

Photosynthesis and respiration by marine phyto-plankton communities are inhibited by toluene at 34 mg/litre.

There is also evidence that life itself can contribute to mass extinctions. When the eventually , organisms that could not survive or thrive around oxygen (called ) . When anoxic conditions appeared, particularly when existed, the anaerobes could abound once again, and when thrived, usually arising from ocean sediments, they . Since the ocean floor had already become anoxic, the seafloor was already a dead zone, so little harm was done there. The hydrogen sulfide became lethal when it rose in the and killed off surface life and then wafted into the air and near shore. But the greatest harm to life may have been inflicted when hydrogen sulfide eventually , which could have been the final blow to an already stressed ecosphere. That may seem a fanciful scenario, but there is evidence for it. There is fossil evidence of during the Permian extinction, as well as photosynthesizing anaerobic bacteria ( and ), which could have only thrived in sulfide-rich anoxic surface waters. Peter Ward made this key evidence for his , and he has implicated hydrogen sulfide events in most major mass extinctions. An important aspect of Ward’s Medea hypothesis work is that about 1,000 PPM of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which might be reached in this century if we keep burning fossil fuels, may artificially induce Canfield Oceans and result in . Those are not wild-eyed doomsday speculations, but logical outcomes of current trends and , proposed by leading scientists. Hundreds of already exist on Earth, which are primarily manmade. Even if those events are “only” 10% likely to happen in the next century, that we are flirting with them at all should make us shudder, for a few reasons, one of which is the awesome damage that it would inflict on the biosphere, including humanity, and another is that it is entirely preventable with the use of technologies .

For this essay’s purposes, the most important ecological understanding is that the Sun provides all of earthly life’s energy, either (all except nuclear-powered electric lights driving photosynthesis in greenhouses, as that energy came from dead stars). Today’s hydrocarbon energy that powers our industrial world comes from captured sunlight. Exciting electrons with photon energy, then stripping off electrons and protons and using their electric potential to power biochemical reactions, is what makes Earth’s ecosystems possible. Too little energy, and reactions will not happen (such as ice ages, enzyme poisoning, the darkness of night, food shortages, and lack of key nutrients that support biological reactions), and too much (such as , ionizing radiation, temperatures too high for enzyme activity), and life is damaged or destroyed. The journey of life on Earth has primarily been about adapting to varying energy conditions and finding levels where life can survive. For the many hypotheses about those ancient events and what really happened, the answers are always primarily in energy terms, such as how it was obtained, how it was preserved, and how it was used. For life scientists, that is always the framework, and they devote themselves to discovering how the energy game was played.

Photosynthesis And Cellular Respiration Board Games

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis – Important Concepts, Common Misconceptions, and Learning Activities (revised 11/2017)

Students learn how organic molecules move and are transformed in ecosystems as a result of the trophic relationships in food webs, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and biosynthesis. This provides the basis for understanding carbon cycles and energy flow through ecosystems. In the final section, students use these concepts and quantitative reasoning to understand trophic pyramids. (NGSS).

This minds-on, hands-on activity begins with analysis and discussion questions that develop student understanding of homeostasis and negative feedback, the difference between negative and positive feedback, and the cooperation between the respiratory and circulatory systems to provide O2 and remove CO2 for cells all over the body. Then, students carry out and analyze an experiment which investigates how rate and depth of breathing are affected by negative feedback regulation of blood levels of CO2 and O2. Finally, students formulate a question concerning effects of exercise on breathing, design and carry out a relevant experiment, analyze and interpret their data, and relate their results to homeostasis during exercise. (NGSS)

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration – Understanding the Basics of Bioenergetics and Biosynthesis (revised 5/2017)
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Ap Bio Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Test

In the first part of this activity, students learn how to use the floating leaf disk method to measure the rate of net photosynthesis (i.e. the rate of photosynthesis minus the rate of cellular respiration). They use this method to show that net photosynthesis occurs in leaf disks in a solution of sodium bicarbonate, but not in water. Questions guide students in reviewing the relevant biology and analyzing and interpreting their results. In the second part of this activity, student groups develop hypotheses about factors that influence the rate of net photosynthesis, and then each student group designs and carries out an investigation to test the effects of one of these factors. (NGSS)

Ap bio photosynthesis cellular respiration test

This analysis and discussion activity helps students to understand the relationships between food, cellular respiration, energy, physical activity, and changes in body weight. At the end of the activity, each student asks and researches an additional question using recommended reliable internet sources. (NGSS)

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration video - Ms. …

This course will cover approximately 30% of the AP Biology curriculum, with the remaining 70% covered during the academic year. Topics will include biochemistry, cell structure and function, membranes, enzymes, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, cellular communication, and ecology. Students will complete several of the required college-level labs including studies of diffusion and osmosis, enzyme activity, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, and ecosystem productivity. Successful completion of the course (83% or better) and instructor approval are required to continue in AP Biology as a junior during the academic year. The AP Biology exam will be taken in May of the junior year.

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration video

Di Nola, L., Mayer, A.M., Heyn, C.C. (1983) Respiration, photosynthesis and drought tolerance in mosses from various habitats in Israel. Isr. J. Bot. 32, 189.

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