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Professor Edgardo Carosella, member of EURASC and Chairman of the Academic Council, was promoted Commander in the Order of Academic Palms (l′Ordre des Palmes Académiques), on July 14th 2014.
At the Opening Ceremony of World Science Forum (WSF) 2017 under the theme of ‘Science for Peace’ a panel of global thought-leaders declared renewed intent to fight poverty and promote just, equitable and inclusive social development based on the restoration, protection and sustainable use of natural resources and ecosystems to promote greater peace and social harmony. His Majesty King Abdullah II Ibn Al Hussein of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and Patron of WSF 2017 opened four days of plenary sessions, short seminars and individual lectures, addressing a large audience of diplomats, global science stakeholders and key influencers.
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Phytochromes regulate light- and sucrose-dependent anthocyanin synthesis and accumulation in many plants. Mesophyll-specific phyA alone has been linked to the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation in response to far-red light in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, multiple mesophyll-localized phytochromes were implicated in the photoregulation of anthocyanin accumulation in red-light conditions. Here, we report a role for mesophyll-specific phyA in blue-light-dependent regulation of anthocyanin levels and novel roles for individual phy isoforms in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation under red illumination. These results provide new insight into spatial- and isoform-specific regulation of pigmentation by phytochromes in A. thaliana.
Flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins, have important physiological and biochemical functions in specific tissues and organs and during particular developmental stages in plants. Accordingly, the accumulation of these compounds is highly regulated during development and in response to environmental stimuli. Among the environmental factors that regulate anthocyanin accumulation are light, temperature, nutrients and stress.– In response to such stimuli, anthocyanins accumulate in specific tissues at discrete developmental stages.– The synthesis and deposition of anthocyanins in different tissues within the plant can exert specific biological functions. For example, light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation in the epidermis is thought to have evolved for protection of plants during early phases of development against excess or damaging solar radiation. Additionally, anthocyanins are important antioxidant molecules and aid in protecting plants from damage by active oxygen species. Among external stimuli, light is one of the most important environmental factors regulating the expression of flavonoid structural genes., Biosynthesis and accumulation of pigments, including anthocyanins, is one of the main aspects of photomorphogenesis, i.e., light-regulated growth and development, in Arabidopsis seedlings upon emergence into the light environment.
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Fourthly, conference leaders will call for more to be done to tackle inequalities between countries and regions. WSF welcomes the strong participation of delegates from many African, Asian and Latin American countries here to promote cooperation and integration to build and accumulate capacities to harness and govern modern sciences.
Seeds were sterilized and plated as previously described in reference . Plated, sterilized seeds were exposed to an R pulse at ~75 µmol m−2 s−1 for 5 min prior to imbibition. Imbibing seeds were cold stratified in darkness at 4°C for three days. All experiments were conducted in controlled-environment chambers at constant temperature and continuous light.
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Given our prior observations that mesophyll-localized phyA regulates the FR-dependent induction of anthocyanins and that additional mesophyll-localized phytochromes, apart from phyB, have a role in R-induced anthocyanin accumulation, we initiated studies to gain further insight into the roles of mesophyll-localized phy proteins and individual phy isoforms in distinct aspects of the regulation of light-dependent anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis. Here, we provide new evidence about the roles of mesophyll-localized phytochromes in B-dependent regulation of anthocyanins and the roles of distinct members of the phytochrome family that are involved in the R-dependent photoregulation of anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that the regulation or fine tuning of anthocyanin levels in Arabidopsis is more complex than previously recognized.
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During the Opening ‘Science for Peace’ Plenary, South African Minister for Science, Naledi Pandor warned against complacency: “No country, no region can afford isolation. Our problems are also our neighbour’s problems. HIVAids, malaria and tuberculosis are on the rise in regions previously considered to be safe from their disease burden, whilst non-communicable including lifestyle diseases now have a devastating impact in the developing world. More than ever we need greater global solidarity to confront rising, unacceptable and very dangerous inequalities. Science has a crucial role to play in our responses to all these societal challenges and strong international cooperation will be essential. The World Science Forum is a critical platform to foster intensified collaboration, also ensuring the science contributions from developing countries play their much needed, rightful part.”
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Based on prior findings that CAB3::pBVR lines are impaired significantly in anthocyanin accumulation under FRc and Rc and the previous observations that phyA can impact anthocyanin levels under B (see discussion above), we measured anthocyanin levels under Bc in transgenic CAB3::pBVR lines to determine whether anthocyanin levels were reduced in the absence of mesophyll-localized phys, as they were under FRc and Rc. We determined that a representative CAB3::pBVR line, i.e., CAB3::pBVR2, accumulates less anthocyanin than does the No-0 WT parent under Bc independent of the presence or absence of sucrose in the growth media (). Phytochromes in the mesophyll are responsible for the induction of anthocyanins under Bc as the 35S::pBVR3 and CAB3::pBVR2 lines, which exhibited elongated hypocotyls under Bc ( and B; see ref. ), have an equal level of reduction of anthocyanins relative to No-0 WT. Both of these lines accumulate ~40% of the No-0 WT level of anthocyanins (). Furthermore, similar to the results under FRc, mesophyll-localized phyA is primarily responsible for the phytochrome-dependent induction of anthocyanin accumulation under Bc (). Under these conditions, the levels of anthocyanin in CAB3::pBVR2 and the phyA mutant are reduced to comparable levels relative to their respective WT parent. That is to say, CAB3::pBVR2 accumulates ~40% of the level of anthocyanins detected in No-0 WT, whereas the phyA mutant accumulates ~46% of the Col-0 WT level of anthocyanins. Notably, a phyB mutant accumulates at least as much anthocyanin as the Col-0 WT parent under Bc when sucrose is supplied (p = 0.2668, ). In the absence of sucrose, both phyA and phyB mutants accumulate significantly less anthocyanin than Col-0 WT (p
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