Quick academic help
Don't let the stress of school get you down! Have your essay written by a professional writer before the deadline arrives.
Exported BILATERAL PARS DEFECT - Nuclear medicine
This theory is supported by the fact that in patient populations who are confined to bed, paraplegics and cerebral palsy’s, the relative incidence of a pars defect is lower. In high activity sportsmen the incidence of a pars defect is higher ie diving, weight lifting and pole vaulting where there is repetitive hyperextention.
Subtype A :A fatigue fracture of the pars interarticularis. Subtype B :There is elongation of the pars interarticularis without a defect. Subtype C :Rare, due to severe hyperextention leading to acute pars fractures.
What Is the Pars Defect of the Lumbar Spine
Acute traumatic fractures only involving the pars are rare, and certain disease processes which weaken the bone such as Osteopetrosis can cause spondylolysis. The most widely used classification is described by Wiltse, Newman and Macnab. Associated with a congenital abnormality of the upper sacrum or the neural arch of L5. There is usually no defect of the pars. Subtype A :A fatigue fracture of the pars interarticularis. Subtype B :There is elongation of the pars interarticularis without a defect. Subtype C :Rare, due to severe hyperextention leading to acute pars fractures. Also known as degenerative spondylolisthesis with an intact neural arch ie non spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. This is 10 times more common at L4, and no greater than 25% anterior displacement occurs. It is rare under 50 years of age, it is 6 times more common in females over 60 years of age, 3 times more common in blacks as in whites, and is 4 times more likely if associated with a sacralized L5. The mechanisms of displacement are thought to involve arthrosis of the zygapophyseal joint, disc degeneration, and remodeling of the articular process and pars. Can occur as an acute fracture of a portion of the neural arch other than the pars interarticularis ie a hangman’s type fracture of C2.(note this type is different from the pars fracture – Isthmic subtype C) Generalised or systemic disorders may affect the neural arch of the spine and cause spondylolysis and subsequent spondylolisthesis. Some of the more common forms are Paget’s disease, metastastatic disease, and Osteopetrosis. Radiological evaluation is the definitive method of confirming the presence of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. A complete plain film series of the lumbar spine and sacrum are recommended, and should include the following views.
This is at the moment the most commonly proposed aetiological mechanism causing a pars defect. In an in vitro study on 28 human lumbar spines found that the pars interarticularis defect of the lumbar spine was related to hyperextention mechanical fatigue.
31-7-2015 · Aetiology
Spondylolysis is an interruption of the pars interarticularis, this can either be unilateral or bilateral. Spondylolisthesis: an anterior displacement of a vertebral body in relationship to the segment immediately below, this can occur with or without a defect in the pars interarticularis.
CT - linear lucency or defect extending through the pars interarticularis. Ocassionally, fragmentation of the pars interarticularis may be seen. Axial images will show absence of a complete bony ring at any given vertebral level.
Why choose our assistance?
As soon as we have completed your work, it will be proofread and given a thorough scan for plagiarism.
Our clients' personal information is kept confidential, so rest assured that no one will find out about our cooperation.
We write everything from scratch. You'll be sure to receive a plagiarism-free paper every time you place an order.
We will complete your paper on time, giving you total peace of mind with every assignment you entrust us with.
Want something changed in your paper? Request as many revisions as you want until you're completely satisfied with the outcome.
We're always here to help you solve any possible issue. Feel free to give us a call or write a message in chat.
How it works
You submit your order instructions
We assign an appropriate expert
The expert takes care of your task
We send it to you upon completion
Average quality score
"I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."
"Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."
"Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."
"Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."
"Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."
"Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."