Call us toll-free

Quick academic help

Don't let the stress of school get you down! Have your essay written by a professional writer before the deadline arrives.

Calculate the price

Pages:

275 Words

$19,50

Alfred Wegener’s Continental Drift Hypothesis | Deskarati

In 1889 and 1909 the Italian violinist and scientist Roberto Mantovani published a hypothesis based on his observations on the volcanic island of Réunion: cracks forming during volcanic eruptions could separate even large parts of an island, could it then be possible that entire continents split apart? Mantovani collected various evidence and published maps to show the shape of the hypothetical former continents (Wegener will use these maps to support his idea), however he explained the driving force behind the breakup of former large continents by the slow expansion of the earth.In 1908 the self-educated geologist Frank B. Taylor proposed that the crust of earth was influenced by tidal forces of the moon and the continents were pulled apart in some regions and pushed together in other regions, forming folds like a carpet. However the involved forces were to weak and his explanation wasn't deemed plausible. The Austrian geologist Otto Ampferer speculated in 1906 that the Alps were formed by folding of the upper crust, as driving force he proposed magma sinking into the mantle and pulling pieces of crust downwards (!). This "Unterströmungstheorie (also Subfluenztheorie)" lacked however a convincing source of energy and couldn't explain all aspects of the genesis of the Alps, as it implied only pulling and not compressive forces needed to form folds and overthrust faults.

Alfred Wegener’s Continental Drift Hypothesis

January 6, 1912 the German meteorologist Alfred Wegener presented in a lecture entitled "Die Heraushebung der Großformen der Erdrinde (Kontinente und Ozeane) auf geophysikalischer Grundlage" (The uprising of large features of earth's crust (Continents and Oceans) on geophysical basis) for the first time his hypothesis of the ancient supercontinent Pangaea, from which all modern continents split apart.Three years later he will publish his book "", translated in the third edition and published in 1922 as "The origin of continents and oceans."Wegener didn't propose something completely new; as he based his idea on earlier observations and suggestions, but in his work he had collected a broad array of evidence and his lectures initiated a fierce discussion in the scientific community.

One Response to Alfred Wegener’s Continental Drift Hypothesis.

Who was Alfred Wegener and what was his theory? | …

In the 1990s, Wrangham began to develop his Cooking Hypothesis, which he more fully elucidated in , published in 2009. Wrangham marshaled numerous lines of evidence to support his hypothesis, which was widely pilloried by his colleagues. Wrangham conceded that the archeological record was scarce for the early control of fire, but he countered that evidence for early fires would rarely survive. Most caves last a quarter million years or so; they are made from soft stone, and the geological dynamics that create caves also destroy them. Also, early humans, just like gorillas and chimpanzees today, and even early hunter-gatherers, would have been constantly on the move, never sleeping in the same place twice. If the first fires were made in the African woodlands and grasslands, the evidence would not survive for long, just as the remnants of today’s hunter-gatherer fires on the African savanna quickly disappear. The gist of Wrangham’s Cooking Hypothesis is this:

The most-accepted hypothesis today is that evolved from and first appeared in East Africa between 2.0 and 1.8 mya. If those are not the exact species that the human line descended through during those times, our actual ancestors were close cousins. The early adults had brains of about 850 ccs, and some later specimens reached 1,100 ccs, or triple the mass of a chimpanzee’s brain. Today’s human brain only averages about 1,200 ccs (). , as with other members of the line, had a brain that was another third larger than , and probably was responsible for its relatively sophisticated material culture. But important as its growing brain was, other anatomical changes were more telling. was fully adapted for living on the ground and walking great distances. For the first quarter-million years of existence, it lived in the Oldowan culture, which used tools and weapons that were little more than rocks with sharpened edges, and probably some shaped sticks. They evolved in a highly dangerous environment and all of their ancestors slept in trees. How could they have slept on the ground? In a word: fire.

Continental Drift Hypothesis - Tectonophysics - Great …

Monkeys, apes, and humans have many traits in common, and one is that members of "out-groups" are fair game. Chimpanzees are the only non-human animals today that form ranked hunting parties, and they are also the only ones that form hunting parties to . Distinct from the killer ape hypothesis, which posits that humans are instinctually violent, the chimpanzee violence hypothesis proposes that chimps only engage in warfare when it makes economic sense: when the benefits of eliminating rivals outweigh the risks/costs. Macaque wars and revolutions appear spontaneously, but chimp wars have calculation behind them, which befits a chimp’s advanced cognitive abilities; they plan murderous raids and carry them out. It is quite probable that the advancing toolset of protohumans was used for coalitionary killing when perceived benefits exceeded assessed risks/costs. Just as with , these traits probably also existed in our last common ancestor. Other animals also engage in intra-species violence, which includes spiders when key resources are scarce and contested, and when ant colonies have power imbalances, they can trigger invasion and extermination by the larger colony. But human and chimpanzee warfare is uniquely organized and calculating.

Fig.1. - 3. "Eppur si muove!" Reconstruction of the former supercontinent of Pangaea and the subsequent breakup in various smaller continents from the Carboniferous to the Quaternary. From WEGENER, A. (1929): 4th ed. (images in public domain).

Order now
  • UNMATCHED QUALITY

    As soon as we have completed your work, it will be proofread and given a thorough scan for plagiarism.

  • STRICT PRIVACY

    Our clients' personal information is kept confidential, so rest assured that no one will find out about our cooperation.

  • COMPLETE ORIGINALITY

    We write everything from scratch. You'll be sure to receive a plagiarism-free paper every time you place an order.

  • ON-TIME DELIVERY

    We will complete your paper on time, giving you total peace of mind with every assignment you entrust us with.

  • FREE CORRECTIONS

    Want something changed in your paper? Request as many revisions as you want until you're completely satisfied with the outcome.

  • 24/7 SUPPORT

    We're always here to help you solve any possible issue. Feel free to give us a call or write a message in chat.

Order now

Zoom Astronomy Glossary: P - Enchanted Learning

Fig.1. - 3. "Eppur si muove!" Reconstruction of the former supercontinent of Pangaea and the subsequent breakup in various smaller continents from the Carboniferous to the Quaternary. From WEGENER, A. (1929): 4th ed. (images in public domain).

Astronomy glossary explains basic astronomical terms, P

Another key set of tensions are those between theorists, empiricists, and inventors. Theorists attempt to account for scientific data and ideally predict data yet to be adduced, which tests the validity of their hypotheses and theories. often produce that scientific data. Inventors create new technologies and techniques. Albert Einstein is the quintessential example of a theorist, who never performed experiments relating to his theories but accounted for experimental results and predicted them. , who performed the experiment that produced results that various scientists wrestled with for a generation before Einstein proposed his , never suspected that their experiment would lead to the theories that it did. The most important experiments in science’s history were often those producing unexpected results and were usually called failures. Einstein’s had no experimental evidence when he proposed it (it , but that was the only evidence for it when the theory was proposed), but it has been confirmed numerous times since then. Einstein expected that his theories would eventually be falsified by experimental evidence, but that the best parts of his theories would survive in the new theories.

Energy and the Human Journey: Where We Have Been; …

In 1889 and 1909 the Italian violinist and scientist Roberto Mantovani published a hypothesis based on his observations on the volcanic island of Réunion: cracks forming during volcanic eruptions could separate even large parts of an island, could it then be possible that entire continents split apart? Mantovani collected various evidence and published maps to show the shape of the hypothetical former continents (Wegener will use these maps to support his idea), however he explained the driving force behind the breakup of former large continents by the slow expansion of the earth.

Deep Time : A History of the Earth - Interactive Infographic

Many people are familiar with the term , which was all of today’s continents merged into a supercontinent. Pangaea formed about 300 mya, but it was not the only supercontinent; it was just the only one existing during the eon of complex life. One called may have existed one bya and did not break up until 750 mya (and reformed into another supercontinent, , 600 mya, which did not break up until 550 mya), and there is a hypothesized earlier one called that existed two bya. There is also a hypothesis that all continental mass was contained in one supercontinent that lasted from . The continental land masses of two bya may have been only about 60% the size of today’s. Supercontinents .

Order now
  • You submit your order instructions

  • We assign an appropriate expert

  • The expert takes care of your task

  • We send it to you upon completion

Order now
  • 37 684

    Delivered orders

  • 763

    Professional writers

  • 311

    Writers online

  • 4.8/5

    Average quality score

Order now
  • Kim

    "I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."

  • Paul

    "Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."

  • Ellen

    "Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."

  • Joyce

    "Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."

  • Albert

    "Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."

  • Mary

    "Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."

Ready to tackle your homework?

Place an order