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Learn About Photosynthesis Formula - ThoughtCo
Once Hartmut Michel had his high-quality crystals, his next step was to find experts in X-ray crystallography in order to then elucidate the structure of the reaction center. Another group at the institute in Martinsried, led by Robert Huber, specialized in X-ray crystallography of proteins. In the spring of 1982 Michel gave a talk to Huber's group about his membrane protein crystallization work, seeking collaborators. Out of this seminar emerged a colleague for the project: Johann “Hans” Deisenhofer. Having joined Huber in 1971 as a PhD student, and then later converting that to a permanent position in the group, Deisenhofer did not hesitate for long to team up with Michel on the project, even though the reaction center was the largest protein at that time whose structure had yet to be determined and it was not clear that standard methods of structure determination would be suitable for the crystal.
One of the first things the trio would immediately uncover was how quantum coherence assists light harvesting. In the two light-harvesting proteins, LH1 and LH2, chlorophyll-like molecules (technically called bacteriochlorophylls in purple bacteria) are packed closely together in a ring shape, as seen in the picture of LH2 for example. To transfer the energy harvested by the chlorophylls, the individual chlorophylls team up and transfer the excitation not randomly but in a pool. They share their excitation in a very ordered, or so to speak, “coherent” way; it is as though they are humming one tune together as opposed to each playing unique parts in an orchestra. With quantum coherence, the system of pigments could reach very far and fast to transfer the excitation.
Photosynthesis Study Guide - Key Concepts - ThoughtCo
The light-harvesting pigments are not only made of chlorophyll-like molecules that absorb sunlight. They also consist of carotenoids, which are pigments that also absorb light, usually in the blue range, and are popularly known for their nutritional value in foods such as tomatoes and sweet potatoes. The other main highlight of the collaboration between Damjanović and Ritz was clarification of the role that carotenoids play in light harvesting. Basically they found that the carotenoids have to use tricks in order to transfer the excitation to the chlorophylls.
Leggett's work on how quantum systems are affected by thermal disorder gave Dong Xu and Schulten the framework for describing how electrons in principle are coupled to the protein motion. They realized they did not explicitly need to know the 60,000 parameters, but instead could use certain functions that characterized how an electron is being affected by the vibrational motion. Additionally, Dong Xu did some detective work and hit on the mathematics derived by Lord Rayleigh in the late 1800s to describe how sound is generated; Rayleigh's equations worked out how the air, a totally disordered thermal bath, can still be imprinted with systematic coherent behavior to produce sound. “That kind of mathematics could actually be applied to the problem in the reaction center,” notes Schulten. “To understand the quantum motion of electrons, which is also coherent like sound, was the goal. The electron motions are actually being affected by the vibrations in the protein that act pretty much like the atoms in the air, statistically speaking.” Schulten is particularly proud of the elegant mathematical steps published in their papers on this topic.
Steps of Photosynthesis ? | Yahoo Answers
In this study of carotenoids, a trip to Japan for an unrelated reason rekindled Schulten's interest in his Harvard work from the early 1970s on polyenes. Carotenoids are related to polyenes, as both share an underlying structure of conjugated double bonds, and both polyenes and carotenoids have low-lying, optically forbidden states. While Schulten was in Japan in the late 1990s for a conference on visual receptors, he met Yasushi Koyama, an experimentalist who had studied the forbidden states in polyenes. Koyama was keen to collaborate with Schulten and, in order to get to know him better, asked Schulten if he would like to take a drive to an earthquake museum. The Kobe earthquake rocked Japan in 1995, and a memorial museum commemorated the devastation.
To further their understanding about how the large degree of bending they were seeing, now on two fronts, would affect membrane geometry, the task at hand required merging the atomistic models and simulations of Hsin's with the low-resolution map from Neil Hunter. At this time, the method Molecular Dynamics Flexible Fitting had just been developed in the Schulten group, which was exactly the method needed to merge atomic-level structures into less-resolved electron microscopy images. Coincidentally, all the pieces of the puzzle came together so perfectly to further the study of membrane curvature with MDFF. Hsin explains that the MDFF work, published in 2009, showed that “higher order structures of large, transmembrane protein complexes can force their membrane environment to adopt to their geometries.”
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Photosynthesis - BoardGameBliss Inc.
Plants must get food into their systems in order to acquire energy and continue living, similar to animals. Plants create energy for animals to use, so they must replenish their nutrients. And plants breathe, in a way. They take in the carbon dioxide that all the animals give off, and they give off oxygen for all the animals to use. Pretty cool design, isn’t it?
The Cell, Respiration and Photosynthesis
In respiration energy is released fromsugars when electrons associated with hydrogen are transported to oxygen (theelectron acceptor), and water is formed as a byproduct. The mitochondriause the energy released in this oxidation in order to synthesize ATP. Inphotosynthesis, the electron flow is reversed, the water is split (not formed),and the electrons are transferred from the water to CO2 and in theprocess the energy is used to reduce the CO2 into sugar. Inrespiration the energy yield is 686 kcal per mole of glucose oxidized to CO2,while photosynthesis requires 686 kcal of energy to boost the electrons from thewater to their high-energy perches in the reduced sugar -- light provides thisenergy.
A Primer on Photosynthesis and the Functioning of ..
There were many reasons why Schulten already knew enough about electron transfer in photosynthesis to suggest using the magnetic field effect as a yardstick in his 1978 paper. The electron transfer in photosynthesis occurred in a protein called the photosynthetic reaction center, which may be thought of as the heart of the photosynthetic unit. When plants and bacteria absorb energy from the sun, this energy is used by the reaction center to transfer an electron. The workings of the reaction center were not fully understood because the structure of this protein was not known in the late 1970s when Schulten was in Göttingen. “So people actually did very well,” recalls Schulten, “to conclude, from certain optical properties and from electron transfer rates, what the structure looked like. So it was amazingly good actually, but it was not firm.”
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