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(1995) offers her more recent reflections on the same subject.

Thereafter additions were probably few, though we have frequent records of the poor state of repair of different sections of the castle, as such in 1343 and 1353 when the great keep was reported to be the verge of collapse.

Both  and distinguished its productive and practical components from more theoretical concerns.

Thoreau's essay (1849) is a classic statement of the principles, later employed by and , of passive resistance against governmental authority on the basis of individual conscience.

OliverThomas CampionThesis: - Lance A.

Eleftheria Morela is defending her PhD thesis: Sport and migrants' acculturation

The Brandenburg Gate is the building in Germany which most strikingly reflects the last 200 years of the country's history. Two symbols, the Brandenburg Gate and the banana, are now to be combined in a single work.
A sculpture consisting of five parts is to be placed in the Brandenburg Gate in such a way as to give the impression of a single large banana stuck sideways in the Gate. During reunification the banana took on a special symbolic significance.
It is the fruit of integration, embodying prosperity and representing an image of paradise ­ a land of milk and honey in which all the foods of the world are available in abundance.
The Germans have always enjoyed a particularly close relationship with the banana ­ and not only since Konrad Adenauer. During the Nazi period "banana" became a swearword. Erhard Auer, the chairman of the Bavarian SPD party, was called a "banana fuehrer". After the War the yellow fruit came to symbolise a sense of freedom, especially in former East Germany. On a subversive level, therefore, the banana was the true symbol of German reunification. For many centuries it has been a symbol of life and love in many cultures.
Since 1986 I have been using the spray banana all over the world to mark the places I find of most interest in terms of art ­ from New York and Moscow to Zurich. The presence of the spray bananas at the entrances to galleries and museums has also turned the banana into a signpost pointing to high quality, free and independent art. The press has called it the "unofficial logo of the art scene". Working with "effects" or "consequences" has been the key element in my art. For 17 years now the banana has represented an artistic medium and investigative tool for the art market which I can use in a positive way to reveal particular aspects.
The Brandenburg Gate, trademark of Berlin and official symbol of German unity, was built from 1789 to 1791 by Carl Gotthard Langhans the Elder. Parades, march-pasts and demonstrations have been held ever since at the feet of the "Gate of Peace". The Brandenburg Gate and the four-horsed chariot were destroyed in the final days of the War in May 1945. Berlin was divided into four sectors and the Gate, which was now located in the Soviet sector, resumed its original function as a city gate - this time separating the British and Soviet sectors, East and West. On 14 August 1961 the Brandenburg gate was closed and the area around it was sealed off. It remained closed for almost 30 years, not opening again until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Traffic was allowed through from East to West from 7 March 1998, although this has now been stopped again.
Following a display in 1998 in front of the Cologne Cathedral, in 1999 at the main entrance of the Art Frankfurt arts fair and at the Frankfurt Messeturm, the display at the Brandenburg Gate is part of a series of presentations featuring large banana sculptures in public places.
Roland Specker and the Kunstverein Berlin are helping me with the realisation of the project in Berlin.
Depending on the amount of time needed to erect and take down the sculpture, the display is expected to last two to three weeks.
The summer of 2010 has been earmarked for the event.

This artistic development is as logical as it is dramatic. By doing without the icon, the artist has peeled off his spray-can cocoon. As long as Thomas Baumgärtel continued using the banana to voice his concerns and problems, he was able to cloak himself in the symbol as a form of self-protection, especially as it was so big in some instances that he could easily have hidden himself behind it. For viewers familiar with Baumgärtel’s artworks, the apparent loss of the symbol is nevertheless logical, because his concerns now emerge from behind the mask. In the face of our contemporary lack of orientation and consideration for others, wrapped up as we are in the world of consumerism, identity problems and the loss of nature, there is a serious tone emerging in these new works – which cannot prevent anyone from adding a banana here and there in their thoughts, if the serious tone should become too loud.

The Thomas More College Curriculum

In Baumgärtel’s paintings of mass events, the sense of confusion is absolute. Shocked by the apparent Hitler salute we find on closer inspection that the familiar gesture comes from a pop festival in our own times. The viewer feels a sense of relief; a Hitler salute and a pop festival are not one and the same thing. The underlying problem of our [German] identity emerges even more ominously in our mind’s eye. The shock on first seeing the work that it could be a Hitler salute is not so easily forgotten.

A representational non-representational style of painting is also a way for Thomas Baumgärtel to put different phenomena and related values to the test. The new landscape paintings (see "Neue Malerei") are a testament to a longing for harmony. At the same time, there is a threat lurking in the shadows and a narrowing of the path that, paradoxically, also opens up the path to an endless number of themes that preoccupy us but are not entirely clear. The barren trees could be just as much a symbol of climate change as a sign of winter; they are an impressive image of how we see nature and at the same time the threat we humans pose to it. Our thoughts are left hanging, become ensnarled and add something to the painting, enhancing the image in the process. The power of our imagination thus becomes a constant that is characterised by contradiction.

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Sir Thomas More, Utopia | Custom PHD Thesis

Atmospherically speaking, the style deployed indicates that Baumgärtel wants to cast a spell on people and draw them into a world that is magical – full of secrets that have to be decoded. The works on German reunification using the banana pointillism technique do not employ the symbol of the banana as a means of simplification. They incorporate dancing bananas instead to create a sense of exhilaration and joy. After all, when we look at these images, we find our thoughts dancing along with the hundreds of airborne bananas. Such successful simplification of complex subject matter transfixes us and lets us rise above our dayto- day concerns. In the same way, Mary Poppins taught us as children the same recipe for overcoming all kinds of problems. Something strange happens as a result of these flickering bananas: the negative seems to become irrelevant; surrealistic, idealistic values take on simplified contours and convey a clear message, thanks to the blurring effect of pointillism. As we know from our own experience of dealing with this topic, the method for achieving such charming simplicity is itself complex. For years, Thomas Baumgärtel and Harald Klemm worked on the subject of German Reunification before they succeeded in achieving clarity over what was an unfathomable event for everyone, so that in the end one symbol stands above all the problems: a banana.

Thomas More (1477 - 1535) wrote the first formal utopia

The invention of zinc paint tubes has since been superseded by the invention of spray cans, and that is another comparable factor. Just as in Saxony it was an open-minded museum director, CarlWoermann, who in 1940 purchased Courbet’s “Les Casseurs de Pierres”, today it is museum director Gohr at the Museum Ludwig in Cologne who commissioned a spray-painted banana for his museum. Once again a progressive art connoisseur was at work who was aware of the risk associated with contemporary artists and took it anyway. Above all else, an otherwise harmless work draws attention to contemporary problems that nobody wants to face, but in fact allow us to see the present all the more clearly.

Thomas More's Utopia - engagement and marriage

For us it is clear that his achievements at the time benefited the people of his era: the invention of zinc paint tubes allowed him to paint outdoors, which shortly afterwards inspired the Impressionists. The claim of the artist to be allowed to choose his own subject matter can also be seen as a democratic act of liberation. Seeing art as an aid in all walks of life goes without saying these days, but during the restoration period of Napoleon III such a notion would have been considered outrageously provocative. When you consider that in those days portraits were still primarily commissioned by kings and princes, you gain a better appreciation of how deeply disturbing it must have been to see the portraits of two lowly stone masons, which Courbet painted in the year 1849 (see ill.)

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