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Biosynthesis of Gibberellins in ..

reported the reversed-phase separation of fatty acids by acomplex two-dimensional TLC employing a catalytic hydrogenationon the plate ().

First description of a direct titration method for analytical hydrogenation todetermine precisely the unsaturation of lipids ().

Discovery of O-amino acid (alanyl and lysyl) esters of phosphatidylglycerol in agram-positive bacteria ().

The first GLC analysis of natural triglycerides from milk fat was reported ().

Hematoside, the ganglioside of horse erythrocytes, is the first ganglioside(GM3) whose structure was elucidated ().

The complete structure of sulfatide (sulfated galactosylceramide) was elucidatedincluding the position of the sulfate group attached to the C3 of galactose ().

Methyl jasmonate was discovered in flowers of jasmine and was shown to be afragrant component in the essential oil from these flowers ().

Discovery of diether-type phospholipids in a an extremely halophilic bacteria () ().

First demonstration of the presence of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid and itsglycerol ester in lipid extractsof the sea anemone, ().

* Amino acids are building blocks for proteins and enzymes. Some free aminoacids, such as proline, improve osmotic adjustment and water-stresstolerance of plants.

Gibberellin | definition of gibberellin by Medical dictionary

Bacteria have evolved gibberellin phytohormone biosynthesis independently of plants and fungi

* Trinexapac-ethyl is a plant growth regulator (available commercially asNovartis' Primo) that interferes with gibberellin biosynthesis andsuppresses plant shoot growth.

During the past 10 years at Virginia Tech, we have evaluated many kinds ofbiostimulants for use in the turfgrass industry. Of the various materialswe've examined, the most promising are seaweed extract, humic acid, aminoacids, benzyladenine, trinexapac-ethy, propiconazole, salicylic acid andsilicates. All of these products exert beneficial influences either throughhormonal effects or by raising antioxidant levels.

A Rice Semi-Dwarf Gene, Tan-Ginbozu (D35), Encodes …

Looking for online definition of gibberellin in the Medical Dictionary

reported the identification of hydroxyalkanoates biologicalpolyesters containing carbon chains different from hydroxybutyrate ()

Studies on the amino acids in the vitamin K-dependent region of prothrombinindicate that vitamin K is involved in the derivatization of glutamic acid by

demonstrated that nearly allphosphatidylserine and a minimum of 70% of phosphatidylethanolamine is on theinside surface of the human erythrocyte membrane, thus "presenting a strongevidence for an asymmetric arrangement of phospholipids" ().

First demonstration of an inhibition of sterol biosynthesis (HMG-CoA reductaseactivity) by oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol in cultured mammalian cells ().

For the first time, the existence of polyunsaturated fatty acids was reported inmarine bacteria ().

Brassinosteroids Are Master Regulators of Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Plant Cell
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Interactions between plant hormones and heavy metals …

This review covers recent advances in gibberellin (GA) signaling. GA signaling is now understood to hinge on DELLA proteins. DELLAs negatively regulate GA response by activating the promoters of several genes including Xerico, which upregulates the abscisic acid pathway which is antagonistic to GA. DELLAs also promote transcription of the GA receptor, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF 1 (GID1) and indirectly regulate GA biosynthesis genes enhancing GA responsiveness and feedback control. A structural analysis of GID1 provides a model for understanding GA signaling. GA binds within a pocket of GID1, changes GID1 conformation and increases the affinity of GID1 for DELLA proteins. GA/GID1/DELLA has increased affinity for an F-Box protein and DELLAs are subsequently degraded via the proteasome. Therefore, GA induces growth through degradation of the DELLAs. The binding of DELLA proteins to three of the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) proteins integrates light and GA signaling pathways. This binding prevents PIFs 3, 4, and 5 from functioning as positive transcriptional regulators of growth in the dark. Since PIFs are degraded in light, these PIFs can only function in the combined absence of light and presence of GA. New analyses suggest that GA signaling evolved at the same time or just after the plant vascular system and before plants acquired the capacity for seed reproduction. An analysis of sequences cloned from Physcomitrella suggests that GID1 and DELLAs were the first to evolve but did not initially interact. The more recently diverging spike moss Selaginella has all the genes required for GA biosynthesis and signaling, but the role of GA response in Selaginella physiology remains a mystery.

Molecular Plant - Home: Cell Press

N2 - This review covers recent advances in gibberellin (GA) signaling. GA signaling is now understood to hinge on DELLA proteins. DELLAs negatively regulate GA response by activating the promoters of several genes including Xerico, which upregulates the abscisic acid pathway which is antagonistic to GA. DELLAs also promote transcription of the GA receptor, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF 1 (GID1) and indirectly regulate GA biosynthesis genes enhancing GA responsiveness and feedback control. A structural analysis of GID1 provides a model for understanding GA signaling. GA binds within a pocket of GID1, changes GID1 conformation and increases the affinity of GID1 for DELLA proteins. GA/GID1/DELLA has increased affinity for an F-Box protein and DELLAs are subsequently degraded via the proteasome. Therefore, GA induces growth through degradation of the DELLAs. The binding of DELLA proteins to three of the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) proteins integrates light and GA signaling pathways. This binding prevents PIFs 3, 4, and 5 from functioning as positive transcriptional regulators of growth in the dark. Since PIFs are degraded in light, these PIFs can only function in the combined absence of light and presence of GA. New analyses suggest that GA signaling evolved at the same time or just after the plant vascular system and before plants acquired the capacity for seed reproduction. An analysis of sequences cloned from Physcomitrella suggests that GID1 and DELLAs were the first to evolve but did not initially interact. The more recently diverging spike moss Selaginella has all the genes required for GA biosynthesis and signaling, but the role of GA response in Selaginella physiology remains a mystery.

Molecular Plant is a Cell Press partnership journal (Press Release)

AB - This review covers recent advances in gibberellin (GA) signaling. GA signaling is now understood to hinge on DELLA proteins. DELLAs negatively regulate GA response by activating the promoters of several genes including Xerico, which upregulates the abscisic acid pathway which is antagonistic to GA. DELLAs also promote transcription of the GA receptor, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF 1 (GID1) and indirectly regulate GA biosynthesis genes enhancing GA responsiveness and feedback control. A structural analysis of GID1 provides a model for understanding GA signaling. GA binds within a pocket of GID1, changes GID1 conformation and increases the affinity of GID1 for DELLA proteins. GA/GID1/DELLA has increased affinity for an F-Box protein and DELLAs are subsequently degraded via the proteasome. Therefore, GA induces growth through degradation of the DELLAs. The binding of DELLA proteins to three of the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) proteins integrates light and GA signaling pathways. This binding prevents PIFs 3, 4, and 5 from functioning as positive transcriptional regulators of growth in the dark. Since PIFs are degraded in light, these PIFs can only function in the combined absence of light and presence of GA. New analyses suggest that GA signaling evolved at the same time or just after the plant vascular system and before plants acquired the capacity for seed reproduction. An analysis of sequences cloned from Physcomitrella suggests that GID1 and DELLAs were the first to evolve but did not initially interact. The more recently diverging spike moss Selaginella has all the genes required for GA biosynthesis and signaling, but the role of GA response in Selaginella physiology remains a mystery.

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