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State Null and Alternative Hypotheses

For example, if you want to test whether a company is correct in claiming its pie takes five minutes to make and it doesn’t matter whether the actual average time is more or less than that, you use the not-equal-to alternative. Your hypotheses for that test would be

The following set of negations may help when you are forming your null and alternative hypotheses.

The null hypothesis is generally the complement of the alternative hypothesis. Frequently, it is (or contains) the assumption that you are making about how the data are distributed in order to calculate the test statistic.

State Null and Alternative Hypotheses

State Null and Alternative Hypotheses

I'm practicing with the hypothesis test and I find myself in trouble with the decision about how to set a null and an alternative hypothesis. My main issue is to determine, in every situation, a "general rule" on how I can decide correctly which is the null and which is the alternative hypothesis.. can someone help me?

When you set up a hypothesis test to determine the validity of a statistical claim, you need to define both a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis.

State Null and Alternative Hypotheses

State Null and Alternative Hypotheses

With the null and alternate hypothesis, you are trying to challenge the current conventional thinking of the day. Choose the hypotheses so that they effectively declare "Here is a result everybody would expect (null hypothesis). However, I actually went out and did the experiment and gathered data, and it is VERY unlikely that the null hypothesis is true. Here is the result I expected (the alternate hypothesis). Nobody expected this hypothesis to be true but me, but when I gathered the data and did the statistics, it is very likely that my model does a better job of describing reality than the existing model. Accordingly, I reject the null hypothesis, accept my hypothesis, and challenge my fellow scientists to work from this new data."

A significance test examines whether the null hypothesis provides a plausible explanation of the data. The null hypothesis itself does not involve the data. It is a statement about a parameter (a numerical characteristic of the population). These population values might be proportions or means or differences between means or proportions or correlations or odds ratios or any other numerical summary of the population. The alternative hypothesis is typically the research hypothesis of interest. Here are some examples.

State Null and Alternative Hypotheses
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Learn About Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis

The alternative hypothesis is what we are attempting to demonstrate in an indirect way by the use of our hypothesis test. If the null hypothesis is rejected, then we accept the alternative hypothesis. If the null hypothesis is not rejected, then we do not accept the alternative hypothesis. Going back to the above example of mean human body temperature, the alternative hypothesis is “The average adult human body temperature is not 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit.”

So you can have a directional alternative hypothesis ..

Researchers often challenge claims about population parameters. You may hypothesize, for example, that the actual proportion of women who have varicose veins is lower than 0.25, based on your observations. Or you may hypothesize that due to the popularity of high heeled shoes, the proportion may be higher than 0.25. Or if you’re simply questioning whether the actual proportion is 0.25, your alternative hypothesis is: “No, it isn’t 0.25.”

the null hypothesis, and the alternative ..

involves the careful construction of two statements: the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. These hypotheses can look very similar, but are actually different.

What is a directional alternative hypothesis? | Hypotheses

Every hypothesis test contains a set of two opposing statements, or hypotheses, about a population parameter. The first hypothesis is called the denoted H0. The null hypothesis always states that the population parameter is to the claimed value. For example, if the claim is that the average time to make a name-brand ready-mix pie is five minutes, the statistical shorthand notation for the null hypothesis in this case would be as follows:

Null and Alternative Hypothesis | Real Statistics Using …

By tradition, we try to disprove (reject) the null hypothesis. We can never prove a null hypothesis, because it is impossible to prove something does not exist. We can disprove something does not exist by finding an example of it. Therefore, in research we try to disprove the null hypothesis. When we do find that a relationship (or difference) exists then we reject the null and accept the alternative. If we do not find that a relationship (or difference) exists, we fail to reject the null hypothesis (and go with it). We never say we accept the null hypothesis because it is never possible to prove something does not exist. That is why we say that we failed to reject the null hypothesis, rather than we accepted it.

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