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Plant Energy Transformations-Photosynthesis - …

Jean Senebier -Further investigated Priestly’s findings of “injured” air and concluded that it was carbon dioxide
- Proved that oxygen replaced carbon dioxide as a plant undergoes photosynthesis Senebier proposed that the "injured air" was carbon dioxide since it did not support life.

Plants use light energy to make sugars from carbon dioxide - Photosynthesis

Photophosphorylation is the production of ATP using the energy of sunlight. Photophosphorylation is made possible as a result of chemiosmosis. Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their concentration gradient. During photosynthesis, light is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules. Electrons within these molecules are then raised to a higher energy state. These electrons then travel through Photosystem II, a chain of electron carriers and Photosystem I. As the electrons travel through the chain of electron carriers, they release energy. This energy is used to pump hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane and into the space within the thylakoid. A concentration gradient of hydrogen ions forms within this space. These then move back across the thylakoid membrane, down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase. ATP synthase uses the energy released from the movement of hydrogen ions down their concentration gradient to synthesise ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

Oxygen-producing photosynthesis first appeared in

US3303608A - Oxygen production by photosynthesis of …

The light-independant reactions of photosynthesis occur in the stroma of the chloroplast and involve the conversion of carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. The light-independent reactions can be split into three stages, these are carbon fixation, the reduction reactions and finally the regeneration of ribulose bisphosphate. Collectively these stages are known as the Calvin Cycle.

Once Earth's atmosphere was full of oxygen, the stage was set for the evolution of aerobic respiration — the process that uses oxygen to convert food into usable energy. The sets of genes responsible for this metabolic pathway were also shared horizontally among the single-celled organisms living on Earth at the time. The oxygen-producing Cyanobacteria, as well as their non-photosynthetic brethren, Melainabacteria and Sericytochromatia, picked up versions of these genes — and so did many others. Importantly (for us and other multicellular organisms), the bacterial lineage that gave rise to our own mitochondria also wound up with aerobic respiration before being engulfed by another cell and evolving into the first eukaryote, our ancestor. And, of course, ultimately, one of these early eukaryotic cells engulfed a Cyanobacterium and evolved into a chloroplast-bearing lineage, the ancestor of modern plants, which have carried on the proud tradition of photosynthesis and oxygen production started by their single-celled forebears. And the rest, as they say, is history — evolutionary history in this case. Life, of both the single- and multi-celled varieties, flourished, leading to the abundant biodiversity that we observe around us.

Oxygen production by photosynthesis of algae under pressure ..

(1973) 42, 387-395 A Novel Cyclical Approach to the Oxygen Producing Mechanism of Photosynthesis D

[11] Heliobacteria Green and purple sulphur bacteria are thought to be among the oldest of photosynthetic bacteria James Allen and his team at Arizona State University -Oxygen produced during photosynthesis takes place at a “metal site” containing a cluster of four manganese atoms and one calcium atom.
-At the site, when water binds to the metal site, the water is split into oxygen and four protons.
-Found that mononuclear manganese is not capable of splitting water, thus it suggests that modern photosynthetic organisms evolved with oxygen producing intermediates.

This research drove them to study the heliobacteria, an evolved form of non-oxygen producing bacteria
-Hypothesized that the heliobacteria and cyanobacteria (an oxygen producing bacteria) are closely related.

Likewise, oxygen produced during photosynthesis can only pass out of the leaf through the ..
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How did the evolution of oxygen-producing photosynthesis ..

Moore, et al. point to Flaveria (Asteraceae), Panicum (Poaceae) and Alternanthera (Amarantheceae) as genera that contain species that are intermediates between C3 and C4 photosynthesis. These plants have intermediate leaf anatomies that contain bundle sheath cells that are less distinct and developed than the .

How do plants produce oxygen? | Organic Chemistry - …

Chemoautotrophs (use chemical compounds for energy and CO2 forcarbon) -- bacteria (some)
Chemoheterotrophs (use chemical compounds for both energy andcarbon) -- animals
Photoaututrophs (use sunlight for energy and CO2 forcarbon) -- plants and photosynthetic bacteria

Patent US3303608 - Oxygen production by photosynthesis …

These intermediates are characterized by their resistance to so that they can operate in higher temperatures and dryer environments than . At right, the ranges of CO2 compensation points for the three types of plants are shown. These compensation points are the values at which the plants cease to provide net photosynthesis.

Most forms of photosynthesis release oxygen ..

Photoaututrophs utilize sunlight for energy and CO2 for theircarbon source by this process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS whereby sunlightis absorbed by a complex compound known as chlorophyll andconverted to energy which drives a series of chemical reactionsthat ultimately removes hydrogen from water or other compoundsand then combines the hydrogen with carbon dioxide in a way thatproduces sugars.

Measuring photosynthesis via the production of oxygen.

The Purple Non-Sulfur Photosynthetic Bacteria constitute a non-taxonomic group of versatile organisms in which most can grow as photoheterotrophs, photoautotrophs or chemoheterotrophs – switching from one mode to another depending on conditions available, especially the following: degree of anaerobiosis, availability of carbon source (CO2 for autotrophic growth, organic compounds for heterotrophic growth), and availability of light (needed for phototrophic growth).

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