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Myoelectric Prosthetics Introduction to Upper Limb Prosthetics

Unlike with body-powered prosthetics, where the patient can physically feel the tension in the cable pulling the system, conventional myoelectric prosthetics do not offer any sensory feedback to the user other than the weight of the object on the arm. However, it is theoretically possible to incorporate an inner array of resistive touch-based sensors underneath the outer shell of the prosthesis. Any outside force on the surface of the prosthesis will cause the inner sensors to compress, and the resistance offered by those sensors will be measured and translated into electrical impulses by electrodes in the prosthesis. A greater outside force will cause a larger indentation in the sensor array, and this will be transmitted as a greater electrical signal. Upon the removal of the outside force, the sensors will return to their normal distance and resistance, thus ending the electrical transmission. The electrical signal generated by the electrodes is transmitted to touch receptors near the innervated muscles to create the sensation of touch. This effectively allows the patient to feel to a certain degree what the prosthesis is touching.

Mattie Talley Foundation - Cost of prosthetics

We cater for all levels of upper limb amputation, utilising a broad range of techniques and technologies to help clients achieve their prosthetic goals. Products include myoelectric devices, body powered prosthesis and purely cosmetic prosthesis with life like appearance. Upper Extremity Prosthesis include:

Solution overview lower limb prosthetics — Ottobock USA

A systematic review was conducted to determine differences between myoelectric and body-powered prostheses to ...

N2 - Myoelectric prostheses have many advantages over body-powered prostheses, yet the absence of sensory feedback in myoelectric devices is one reason body-powered devices are often preferred by amputees. While considerable progress has been made in the mechanical design and control of myoelectric prostheses, research on haptic feedback has not had a similar impact. In this study, we seek to develop a fundamental understanding of the utility of force feedback and vision in the functional operation of a body-powered upper-limb prosthesis. Using a custom body-powered prosthesis in which force feedback can be conditionally removed, we asked { m N}=10 non-amputee participants to identify objects based on stiffness in four separate conditions with and without visual and/or force feedback. Results indicate that the combination of visual and force feedback allows for the best accuracy, followed by force feedback only, then visual feedback only. In addition, combining force feedback with visual feedback does not significantly affect identification timing compared to visual feedback alone. These findings suggest that consideration should be given to the development of force feedback displays for myoelectric prostheses that function like a Bowden cable, coupling the amputee's control input to the resulting feedback.

Lastly, movements of the prosthesis can be sensed by the patient using similar electrical signals that causes feedback in the residual muscle fibers. When the patient moves the prosthetic arm, the degree of contraction is measure and an electrical signal is generated and amplified. The signal is then transmitted to nerve endings of the muscles that control those specific movements, causing the fibers to contract as though it was moving a real arm. The force of the contraction depends on the amplitude of the electrical signal, which in turn depends on the movements of the prosthetic arm.

Above-knee waterproof prosthesis — Ottobock USA

AB - Myoelectric prostheses have many advantages over body-powered prostheses, yet the absence of sensory feedback in myoelectric devices is one reason body-powered devices are often preferred by amputees. While considerable progress has been made in the mechanical design and control of myoelectric prostheses, research on haptic feedback has not had a similar impact. In this study, we seek to develop a fundamental understanding of the utility of force feedback and vision in the functional operation of a body-powered upper-limb prosthesis. Using a custom body-powered prosthesis in which force feedback can be conditionally removed, we asked { m N}=10 non-amputee participants to identify objects based on stiffness in four separate conditions with and without visual and/or force feedback. Results indicate that the combination of visual and force feedback allows for the best accuracy, followed by force feedback only, then visual feedback only. In addition, combining force feedback with visual feedback does not significantly affect identification timing compared to visual feedback alone. These findings suggest that consideration should be given to the development of force feedback displays for myoelectric prostheses that function like a Bowden cable, coupling the amputee's control input to the resulting feedback.

Myoelectric prostheses have many advantages over body-powered prostheses, yet the absence of sensory feedback in myoelectric devices is one reason body-powered devices are often preferred by amputees. While considerable progress has been made in the mechanical design and control of myoelectric prostheses, research on haptic feedback has not had a similar impact. In this study, we seek to develop a fundamental understanding of the utility of force feedback and vision in the functional operation of a body-powered upper-limb prosthesis. Using a custom body-powered prosthesis in which force feedback can be conditionally removed, we asked { m N}=10 non-amputee participants to identify objects based on stiffness in four separate conditions with and without visual and/or force feedback. Results indicate that the combination of visual and force feedback allows for the best accuracy, followed by force feedback only, then visual feedback only. In addition, combining force feedback with visual feedback does not significantly affect identification timing compared to visual feedback alone. These findings suggest that consideration should be given to the development of force feedback displays for myoelectric prostheses that function like a Bowden cable, coupling the amputee's control input to the resulting feedback.

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Myoelectric Prosthetic Components for the Upper Limb

Although myoelectric prosthetics have the capability of performing a greater range of movements, the most important control signals are still the basic arm contractions. The four primary control signals used are innervated muscle contraction stimulated electromyography signals, which allow movements such as flexion and extension of the elbow and hand. Combinations of these contractions will allow for more complicated movements, simulating an actual human arm.

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