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9(l) Primary Productivity of Plants - Physical geography
The of a is the amount of biomass produced through photosynthesis per unit area and time by plants, the primary producers. Primary productivity is usually expressed in units of energy (e.g., joules m day ) or in units of dry organic matter (e.g., kg m year ). Globally, primary production amounts to 243 billion metric tons of dry plant biomass per year. The total energy by plants in a community through photosynthesis is referred to as (). Because all the energy fixed by the plant is converted into sugar, it is theoretically possible to determine a plant's energy uptake by measuring the amount of sugar produced. A proportion of the energy of gross primary productivity is used by plants in a process called . Respiration provides a plant with the energy needed for various plant physiological and morphological activities. The general equation for respiration is:
The carbon dioxide in our atmosphere contains both 12C and 13C isotopes. When the carbon atoms of CO2 are captured by organisms in photosynthesis, the organisms show a definite preference for the light 12C isotope of carbon. They will incorporate the 12C isotope into the proteins, sugars, and other molecules that they synthesize preferentially to the heavier 13C isotope. Rocks that are 3.4 billion years old have been discovered which are enriched with the 12C isotope. The concentration of the 12C isotope shows the presence of photosynthesis. These early photosynthetic organisms used H2S as a source of hydrogen atoms instead of water and did not produce oxygen as a by-product.
Photosynthesis is the production of organic compounds from ..
Globally, patterns of primary productivity vary both spatially and temporally. The least productive ecosystems are those limited by and water like the deserts and the polar tundra. The most productive ecosystems are systems with high temperatures, plenty of water and lots of available soil nitrogen. Table 9l-1 describes the approximate average net primary productivity for a variety of ecosystem types.
Ancient sediments are found which are rich in iron (Fe2+) as water soluble compounds. Beginning at about 2.5 billion years ago, the sediments began showing iron oxides containing Fe3+ ions that were not water soluble. This shows that the atmosphere had changed from a reducing environment to an oxidizing one where oxygen was present. The oxygen in the atmosphere appears to have been generated by living organisms carrying out oxygen-producing photosynthesis. These newer organisms could obtain hydrogen by breaking down water instead of H2S to produce the hydrogen needed to synthesize carbon compounds. As a by-product of breaking down water, oxygen gas is formed.
Oxygen is generated as a waste product of photosynthesis
Subtracting respiration from gross primary production gives us (), which represents the rate of production of biomass that is available for consumption () by organisms (bacteria, fungi, and animals).
Plants absorb water through their roots, and carbon dioxide through their leaves. Some glucose is used for respiration, while some is converted into insoluble for storage. The stored starch can later be turned back into glucose and used in respiration. Oxygen is released as a by-product of photosynthesis.
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that occurs in the second major set of events in photosynthesis.
The product of photosynthesis is a , such as the sugar , and oxygen which is released into the atmosphere (Figure 9l-1). All of the sugar produced in the photosynthetic cells of plants and other organisms is derived from the initial chemical combining of carbon dioxide and water with sunlight (Figure 9l-1). This chemical reaction is catalyzed by acting together with other , , , , and molecules. Sugars created in photosynthesis can be later converted by the plant to starch for storage, or it can be combined with other sugar molecules to form specialized carbohydrates, such as . Sugars can also be combined with other such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur, to build complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
a by-product of photosynthesis.
Carbon dioxide is captured in a cycle of reactions known as the Calvin cycle or the Calvin-Benson cycle after its discoverers. It is also known as just the C3 cycle. Those plants that utilize just the Calvin cycle for carbon fixation are known as . Carbon dioxide diffuses into the stroma of chloroplasts and combines with a five-carbon sugar, ribulose1,5-biphosphate (). The enzyme that catalyzes this reaction is referred to as , a large molecule that may be the most abundant organic molecule on the Earth. This catalyzed reaction produces a 6-carbon intermediate which decays almost immediately to form two molecules of the 3-carbon compound 3-phosphoglyceric acid (). The fact that this 3-carbon molecule is the first stable product of photosynthesis leads to the practice of calling this cycle the C3 cycle.
What are the Products of Photosynthesis ? - BiologyWise
All of the sugar produced in the photosynthetic cells of plants and other organisms is derived from the initial chemical combining of carbon dioxide and water with sunlight.
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