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L2 Biosynthesis | Lipoprotein | Biosynthesis

Bacterial lipoproteins are proteins that are post-translationally modified with a diacylglyceride at an N-terminal cysteine, which serves to tether these proteins to the outer face of the plasma membrane or to the outer membrane. This paper reviews recent insights into the enzymology of bacterial lipoprotein biosynthesis and localization. Moreover, we use bioinformatic analyses of bacterial lipoprotein signal peptide features and of the key biosynthetic enzymes to consider the distribution of lipoprotein biosynthesis at the phylum level. These analyses support the important conclusion that lipoprotein biosynthesis is a fundamental pathway utilized across the domain bacteria. Moreover, with the exception of a small number of sequences likely to derive from endosymbiont genomes, the enzymes of bacterial lipoprotein biosynthesis appear unique to bacteria, making this pathway an attractive target for the development of novel antimicrobials. Whilst lipoproteins with comparable signal peptide features are encoded in the genomes of Archaea, it is clear that these lipoproteins have a distinctive biosynthetic pathway that has yet to be characterized.

T1 - Molecular modelling and the biosynthesis of apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins

Bacterial lipoproteins are proteins that are post-translationally modified with a diacylglyceride at an N-terminal cysteine, which serves to tether these proteins to the outer face of the plasma membrane or to the outer membrane. This paper reviews recent insights into the enzymology of bacterial lipoprotein biosynthesis and localization. Moreover, we use bioinformatic analyses of bacterial lipoprotein signal peptide features and of the key biosynthetic enzymes to consider the distribution of lipoprotein biosynthesis at the phylum level. These analyses support the important conclusion that lipoprotein biosynthesis is a fundamental pathway utilized across the domain bacteria. Moreover, with the exception of a small number of sequences likely to derive from endosymbiont genomes, the enzymes of bacterial lipoprotein biosynthesis appear unique to bacteria, making this pathway an attractive target for the development of novel antimicrobials. Whilst lipoproteins with comparable signal peptide features are encoded in the genomes of Archaea, it is clear that these lipoproteins have a distinctive biosynthetic pathway that has yet to be characterized.

(1980), LIPOPROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS: THE AVIAN MODEL

27.08.2010 · These studies validate lipoprotein biosynthesis as a target in an ..

The role of plasma lipoproteins in supplying cholesterol for progesterone biosynthesis by human corpus luteum tissue in culture was investigated. Progesterone secretion by tissue fragments maintained in organ culture reached a maximum rate by the third day and subsequently declined. Maximal secretion of progesterone was dependent on the presence of both low density lipoprotein (LDL) and hCG in the culture medium, whereas high density lipoprotein (HDL) was ineffective in supporting progesterone biosynthesis. Human corpus luteum tissue degraded [ 125I]iodo-LDL by a mechanism which was saturable, and degradation of [ 125I]iodo-LDL was stimulated by hCG. Although 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity was present in microsomes prepared from fresh human corpus luteum tissue, the activity of this enzyme in microsomes prepared from tissue maintained in culture for 3 days was virtually undetectable. Fresh human corpus luteum tissue contained 3 times more unesterified cholesterol than esterified cholesterol. It is concluded that LDL, but not HDL, is the major source of cholesterol used by the human corpus luteum for progesterone biosynthesis.

N2 - The role of plasma lipoproteins in supplying cholesterol for progesterone biosynthesis by human corpus luteum tissue in culture was investigated. Progesterone secretion by tissue fragments maintained in organ culture reached a maximum rate by the third day and subsequently declined. Maximal secretion of progesterone was dependent on the presence of both low density lipoprotein (LDL) and hCG in the culture medium, whereas high density lipoprotein (HDL) was ineffective in supporting progesterone biosynthesis. Human corpus luteum tissue degraded [ 125I]iodo-LDL by a mechanism which was saturable, and degradation of [ 125I]iodo-LDL was stimulated by hCG. Although 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity was present in microsomes prepared from fresh human corpus luteum tissue, the activity of this enzyme in microsomes prepared from tissue maintained in culture for 3 days was virtually undetectable. Fresh human corpus luteum tissue contained 3 times more unesterified cholesterol than esterified cholesterol. It is concluded that LDL, but not HDL, is the major source of cholesterol used by the human corpus luteum for progesterone biosynthesis.

Biosynthesis and metabolism of lipoprotein (a) — UT …

Phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and lipoprotein …

AB - Significant advances have been made over the past year toward understanding the pathways of lipoprotein (a) biosynthesis and metabolism Transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms have been identified as important determinants of plasma lipoprotein (a) levels. Assembly of lipoprotein (a) has been shown to be an extracellular event that occurs on the hepatocyte cell surface. The development of lipoprotein (a) transgenic mice has provided a valuable model to study the metabolism of lipoprotein (a).

N2 - Significant advances have been made over the past year toward understanding the pathways of lipoprotein (a) biosynthesis and metabolism Transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms have been identified as important determinants of plasma lipoprotein (a) levels. Assembly of lipoprotein (a) has been shown to be an extracellular event that occurs on the hepatocyte cell surface. The development of lipoprotein (a) transgenic mice has provided a valuable model to study the metabolism of lipoprotein (a).

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Serum Lipoprotein Biosynthesis and Orotic Acid

Significant advances have been made over the past year toward understanding the pathways of lipoprotein (a) biosynthesis and metabolism Transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms have been identified as important determinants of plasma lipoprotein (a) levels. Assembly of lipoprotein (a) has been shown to be an extracellular event that occurs on the hepatocyte cell surface. The development of lipoprotein (a) transgenic mice has provided a valuable model to study the metabolism of lipoprotein (a).

Low-density lipoprotein - Wikipedia

, and (2012)A phylum level analysis reveals lipoprotein biosynthesis to be a fundamental property of bacteria. Protein & Cell, 3 (3). pp. 163-170. ISSN 1674-800X

Bile Acid Synthesis, Metabolism and Biological Functions

AB - The role of plasma lipoproteins in supplying cholesterol for progesterone biosynthesis by human corpus luteum tissue in culture was investigated. Progesterone secretion by tissue fragments maintained in organ culture reached a maximum rate by the third day and subsequently declined. Maximal secretion of progesterone was dependent on the presence of both low density lipoprotein (LDL) and hCG in the culture medium, whereas high density lipoprotein (HDL) was ineffective in supporting progesterone biosynthesis. Human corpus luteum tissue degraded [ 125I]iodo-LDL by a mechanism which was saturable, and degradation of [ 125I]iodo-LDL was stimulated by hCG. Although 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity was present in microsomes prepared from fresh human corpus luteum tissue, the activity of this enzyme in microsomes prepared from tissue maintained in culture for 3 days was virtually undetectable. Fresh human corpus luteum tissue contained 3 times more unesterified cholesterol than esterified cholesterol. It is concluded that LDL, but not HDL, is the major source of cholesterol used by the human corpus luteum for progesterone biosynthesis.

Bile Acid Synthesis and Utilization

can be grouped into two classes: the nonexchangeable ( and ), and the exchangeable (, , , , , , and ). Exchangeable are able to interact with a range of macromolecular lipid assemblies, from large droplets to tiny particles. In contrast to exchangeable , the non-exchangeable remain on the same lipoprotein particle from biosynthesis to breakdown.

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