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Appendix A – Photosynthesis and Visible Light

And if that isn’t enough, since blue light is the highest in energy in the visible part of the spectrum, it produces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the tissues, these can cause damage to the tissues by oxidation, if there are not enough antioxidants present to prevent this damage.

The heat being produced from the light may have also affected the rate of photosynthesis.

While PUR also encompasses this too it also can simply refer to all light spectrums within PAR with emphasis on the more efficient spectrums rather than the less efficient spectrums such as yellow & green. Or stated another way, the portion of PAR, which is more efficiently absorbed by plants & zooxanthellae photopigments thereby stimulating photosynthesis. We can state PUR one more way, where as PAR is the most important quantity of light, "PUR is the quality of light as per application".

Which colors of light are most effective for photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is the conversion of light energy into chemical bond energy.

Inner membrane represented as a series of staked membranes = GRANUM (GRANA = plural). Each GRANUM is made up of a number of individual membrane units called a THYLAKOID. The portion of photosynthesis which is called the LIGHT REACTION (LIGHT DEPENDENT Rx--requires light energy in order to occur) takes place in the Grana. (see p. 113, Fig. 7.6 in text)

The clear, non-membrane areas of chloroplast = STROMA. This portion of photosynthesis is called the DARK REACTION (LIGHT INDEPENDENT--does not require light energy in order to take place) occurs in the Stroma).

Which colors of light are most effective for photosynthesis and ..

• long wavelength or L cones, containing the photopigment  and most sensitive to

When using a chromaticity diagram, keep in mind that it has mathematically and rather mechanically removed the perceptual effect of brightness. Because the luminance of a "red" or "violet" monochromatic or single wavelength light in comparison to a "green" light, when all lights are the same radiant intensity, the "red" and "violet" lights would have to be substantially increased in power to produce a perceptual match to the chromaticity diagram. A chromaticity diagram therefore does not accurately describe, for example, the perception of relative color intensity in a solar spectrum, where the visible wavelengths have .

Another misunderstanding about LED emitters is targeting the responsive wavelength. While exact coral responsiveness wavelengths are unknown, much is known in a more broad sense (and even more knowledge is growing, such as the "blue band" of coral responsiveness). For example, we do know that much of the yellow and green bands are 30%-80% less efficient for most photosynthetic corals, clams, etc. (although under 24% green light can be useful, but over 25% it is actually detrimental; Reference: )

Wavelengths of light which are more readily absorbed by photosynthetic pigments cause higher levels of photosynthesis.
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Why the rate of Photosynthesis is higher in red light …

*Chlorophyll synthesis; occurring in chloroplasts, this is the chemical reactions and pathways by the plant hormone cytokinin soon after exposure to the correct Nanometers wave length , that traps the energy of sunlight for photosynthesis and exists in several forms, the most abundant being Chlorophyll A.
This results in continued growth of a plant, algae, zooxanthellae and the ability to "feed" & propagate. Without this aspect of PAR, zooxanthellae & plants cannot properly "feed" propagate resulting is stunted freshwater plant growth, and eventually poor coral health in reef tanks.
This is also known as the Photosynthetic Action Spectrum (PAS).

Effects of Blue and Red Light on the Rate of Photosynthesis

*Chlorophyll A; A type of chlorophyll that is the most common photosynthetic organisms predominant in all higher plants, red & green algae higher plants, red & green algae. It is best at absorbing wavelength in the 400-450 nm & 650-700 nm

The Effect of Light Wavelength on Photosynthesis Rates By: ..

*Photosynthetic response; During this time, the molecules needed for photosynthesis gradually reach operating levels which begins when energy from light is absorbed by proteins called photosynthetic reaction centers that contain chlorophylls.

Read on to find out what the role of green light is in photosynthesis

*Chlorophyll B; The chlorophyll that occurs only in plants & green algae. It functions as a light harvesting chlorophyll pigment that pass on the light excitation to chlorophyll a. It absorbs well at wavelength of 450-500 nm & 600-650 nm

Since many photosynthetic organisms live where light in higher spectrums of PAS such as 600nm & higher penetrate less if at all (in particular algae, zooxanthellae, & cynaobacteria), many have adapted to ways to still harvest this light energy.
These organisms use Phycobilisomes which are light harvesting antennae of photosystem II (Chlorophyll synthesis in the Photosynthic Action Spectrum-PAS).

so these would be the most effective wavelengths for photosynthesis

*Phototropic response; having a tendency to move in response to light. Basically this is the Chlorophyll containing plant or algae "moving" to respond to a positive light source to begin the process of photosynthesis (initial growth of plants, zooxanthellae, etc.).

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