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Summary Stage I: Light-Dependent Reactions.
The light-dependent reactions transform light energy into chemical energy which is trapped and carried by ATP and NADPH to the Calvin Cycle.

The light-dependent reactions require chlorophyll and occur in the thylakoid membranes of the grana of the chloroplast.

Light energy is also used to split water (Photolysis of water) into:

H2O -----> 2H+ + 2e- + 1/2 O2 This reaction produces oxygen and provides electrons and Hydrogen for the reduction of NADP to NADPH (NADP gains H+ and electrons; the water is oxidized because it loses the H+and e-)

The light reactions remove electrons from excited chlorophyll molecules in both Photosystem I and Photosystem II and pass the higher energy electrons along an electron transport chain, releasing energy to make ATP (from ADP and P), or transferring the electrons to NADP.

The light reactions must occur several times to produce enough ATP and NADPH to "run" the Calvin cycle Stage II: Calvin Cycle or C-3 Photosynthesis
(Sometimes called the Dark Reactions)

Six molecules of Carbon dioxide each combine with a 6 molecules of a 5-carbon sugar (Ribulose bisphosphate) and undergo a reduction to form 3-carbon molecules (Glyceraldehyde 3 Phosphate or G3P).
Ten of the 12 molecules of G3P are used to regenerate more ribulose bisphosphate to keep the cycle going.
Two of the 12 G3P are converted to the carbohydrate, glucose.

These photosynthetic reactions do not use light energy for the energy source.

The light-dependent reactions take place on the thylakoid membrane inside a chloroplast.

While too small to be seen with visible light, atoms have substructures of their own. They have a small central region or nucleus—containing protons and neutrons—surrounded by a larger region containing electrons. The number of protons in the atomic nucleus (atomic number) is the defining characteristic of each element; different isotopes of the same element differ in the number of neutrons only. Despite the immense variation and number of substances, there are only some 100 different stable elements.

The light-dependent reactions begin in photosystem II.

In actuality, however, this stage is not dependent on sunlight and can take place at any time of day or stage of lighting.

In this process, light energy is converted into chemical energy, in the form of the energy-carrying molecules ATP(Adenosine triphosphate) and NADPH(Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate).

A byproduct of this chemical reaction is oxygen, which is released through holes in the leaf called stomates.

The light-dependent reactions, or photoreduction, is the first stage of photosynthesis, the process by which plants capture and store energy from sunlight.

Photosynthesis: Light Reactions 1 - YouTube

The thylakoid membrane contains some integral membrane protein complexes that catalyze the light reactions.

Naturally occurring food and fuel contain complex carbon-based molecules, chiefly derived from plant matter that has been formed by photosynthesis. The chemical reaction of these molecules with oxygen releases energy; such reactions provide energy for most animal life and for residential, commercial, and industrial activities.

The energy released by burning fuel or digesting food was once energy from the sun that was captured by plants in the chemical process that forms plant matter (from air and water). (Boundary: The fact that plants capture energy from sunlight is introduced at this grade level, but details of photosynthesis are not.)

light reaction; thylakoid membrane; photosystems; photosynthetic electron transfer; photophosphorylation
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Photosynthesis (Light Reactions) - YouTube

Waves are a repeating pattern of motion that transfers energy from place to place without overall displacement of matter. Light and sound are wavelike phenomena. By understanding wave properties and the interactions of electromagnetic radiation with matter, scientists and engineers can design systems for transferring information across long distances, storing information, and investigating nature on many scales—some of them far beyond direct human perception.

What are dark and light reactions in photosynthesis?

. The chemical reaction by which plants produce complex food molecules (sugars) requires an energy input (i.e., from sunlight) to occur. In this reaction, carbon dioxide and water combine to form carbon-based organic molecules and release oxygen. (Boundary: Further details of the photosynthesis process are not taught at this grade level.)

Light-dependent reactions (light reactions) 2

Whether a wave in water, a sound wave, or a light wave, all waves have some features in common. A simple wave has a repeating pattern of specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude. The wavelength and frequency of a wave are related to one another by the speed of travel of the wave, which, for each type of wave, depends on the medium in which the wave is traveling. Waves can be combined with other waves of the same type to produce complex information-containing patterns that can be decoded at the receiving end. Waves, which transfer energy and any encoded information without the bulk motion of matter, can travel unchanged over long distances, pass through other waves undisturbed, and be detected and decoded far from where they were produced. Information can be digitized (converted into a numerical representation), sent over long distances as a series of wave pulses, and reliably stored in computer memory.

Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis - BioTopics

In ordinary language, people speak of “producing” or “using” energy. This refers to the fact that energy in concentrated form is useful for generating electricity, moving or heating objects, and producing light, whereas diffuse energy in the environment is not readily captured for practical use. Therefore, to produce energy typically means to convert some stored energy into a desired form—for example, the stored energy of water behind a dam is released as the water flows downhill and drives a turbine generator to produce electricity, which is then delivered to users through distribution systems. Food, fuel, and batteries are especially convenient energy resources because they can be moved from place to place to provide processes that release energy where needed. A system does not destroy energy when carrying out any process. However, the process cannot occur without energy being available. The energy is also not destroyed by the end of the process. Most often some or all of it has been transferred to heat the surrounding environment; in the same sense that paper is not destroyed when it is written on, it still exists but is not readily available for further use.

Light-dependent reactions - Wikipedia

Energy can also be transferred from place to place by electric currents, which can then be used locally to produce motion, sound, heat, or light. The currents may have been produced to begin with by transforming the energy of motion into electrical energy (e.g., moving water driving a spinning turbine which generates electric currents).

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