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Coral Reefs Coral Reefs are the “Rainforests” of the ocean
A Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometer (Junior PAM, Heinz Walz GmbH, Effeltrich, Germany) with a fiber optic cord measured the relative rate of photosynthesis (relative electron transport rate, or rETR) of the coral's zooxanthellae under conditions of low, natural, slightly elevated, and high alkalinity. Alkalinity concentrations were adjusted upwards with a commercially available buffer (Reef Builder, Seachem Laboratories, Madison, Georgia, USA.) Alkalinity was measured with a colorimeter (Alkalinity Checker HI755, Hanna Instruments, Woonsocket, Rhode Island, USA.) and doubled checked initially by titration to a pH of 4.2 through use of a commercially available titrant (1.6N sulfuric acid) and a digital titrator (Hach, Loveland, Colorado, USA.)
* For Medium Aquariums (such as a 60 gal.), generally (2) AquaRay 600 LEDs will work well for fish or medium light plants, however with higher light needs (sps corals, high light FW plants, etc.) consider (4) LED Strips (mixing LED types may be advisable too such as Reef White & Marine Blue for Reef Tanks).
Corals and Coral Reefs | Smithsonian Ocean Portal
There was even coral, which shouldn't make a lick of sense. A coral reef is supposed to be a bright blue, glimmering world, with flashy fish and maybe a sea turtle or two. It's an ecosystem absolutely dependent on the sun: Corals have a symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic algae, which need sunlight to thrive and pump out nutrients for their hosts. But not deep reefs like this in the so-called "twilight zone," the waters between 150 and 500 feet deep. They operate with little light or, if waters grow murky, no light at all. Yet a reef still flourishes.
Less expensive than T5 lights when compared to the equivalent light energy of (2) T5 18 Watt lights & fixtures including, electrical usage, initial cost, T5 annual lamp replacement over the 5 year life of a 12 watt AquaRay LED light fixture. The AquaRay costs roughly $133 vs. $318 for the T5
This comparison can also be made 30 watt GroBeam/AquaBeam 2000 & 1500 to a Metal Halide of about 250-400 watts for which the electrical usage difference would be more than double the above figure and when adding in a chiller, which may no longer be needed, the savings adds to even more!
About Coral and Coral Reefs - Coral Reef Adventure
This is a dangerous place for zooplankton during the day, what with their own predators about. So zooplankton hang out in the dark depths when the sun is up, then ascend at night to feed on the phytoplankton under cover of darkness. Sunlight makes its way into the phytoplankton, which make their way into the zooplankton, which in turn end up as coral food when they descend into the deep. The ecosystem gets its energy from the sun, however indirectly.
But that doesn't mean they don't depend on the sun. It just takes a couple more steps for corals to gain access to its photonic energy. Plankton is made of tiny animals called zooplankton, which feed on their counterparts, plant-like organisms called phytoplankton. These phytoplankton typically float at the top of the water column to absorb sunlight.
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Coral Reef Bleaching - Marine Biology Organization
The overall color balance of the "Coral Colour 1500" when full on replaces a 20,000K Light.
It is ideal for a wide angle light in a marine reef aquarium and perfect as the sole lighting for a 30 gallon or less nano reef (NOT recommended for freshwater aquariums)
Where Are Coral Reefs Located?: Global Coral Reef …
Coastal development threatens the reefs in a number of ways. Tropical forests have a thin layer of soil that is kept in place by dense forest. When land is cleared for construction, this layer erodes quickly with any rainfall and is transported by rivers to the sea. In areas with pristine mangrove forests and seagrass beds, most of this sediment will be trapped before reaching the reefs. But coastal construction often removes mangroves and seagrass beds, which takes away the sediment barrier (and also removes the reef’s nursery). Excess sediments cover corals, blocking the light necessary for their symbiotic zooxanthellae and smothering polyps. Nutrients from sewage pollution disrupt the balance between corals and faster growing seaweeds. Under natural conditions, corals are able to out-compete seaweeds because of the low nutrient content in tropical waters. When outside nutrients are added, faster growing seaweeds can take over and smother corals.
Coral Reefs: an Endangered Species - Bagheera
Two of these Coral Colour Plus Ultima LEDs can easily light a 48 inch by 18 inch marine aquarium (2) Marine Blue 600s could be added for an advanced reef tank of this size)
Photosynthetic Efficiencies of LEDs: Results of Short …
According to the Reef Check monitoring program, over-fishing is a major problem for coral reefs — and for the ocean in general. Over-fishing works in a step-by-step fashion to cause imbalances. First, fishing selectively takes larger, predatory fish off the reef causing population explosions of smaller herbivorous fish. When the larger fish become scarce, the herbivorous fish are then targeted by fishermen. Without the herbivores, seaweeds can over-grow the corals and smother them. Destructive fishing practices include the use of cyanide to stun fish for capture for the marine aquarium and live fish trades and blast fishing to kill fish for food. These fishing methods are not usually species-specific. Many organisms are killed in the process and habitats that took thousands of years to build are destroyed.
9 Alarming Facts About Coral Reef Bleaching | Mental …
The GroBeam XB-D Ultima is an over all wide angle 6500K freshwater aquarium light for "High Light" planted or simply "Fish Only" aquariums (for those who desire the most natural light for their plant/fish health)
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