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Amino Acid Synthesis and Metabolism
However another reaction occurs simultaneously, particularly in more concentrated nitric acid, in which the gas nitrogen monoxide (nitrogen(II) oxide, NO) is formed instead of hydrogen.
Nitric acid reacts with proteins to form yellow nitrated products. This reaction is known as the xanthoproteic reaction. This test is carried out by adding concentrated nitric acid to the substance being tested, and then heating the mixture. If proteins are present that contains with rings, the mixture turns yellow. Upon adding a strong base such as liquid , the color turns orange. These color changes are caused by nitrated aromatic rings in the protein. Xanthoproteins are formed when the acid contacts epithelial cells and are indicative of inadequate safety precautions when handling nitric acid.
Laboratory Synthesis of Adipic Acid
Dilute nitric acid may be concentrated by distillation up to 68% acid, which is a maximum boiling containing 32% water. In the laboratory, further concentration involves distillation with either or which act as dehydrating agents. Such distillations must be done with all-glass apparatus at reduced pressure, to prevent decomposition of the acid. Industrially, strong nitric acid is produced by dissolving additional nitrogen dioxide in 68% nitric acid in an absorption tower. Dissolved nitrogen oxides are either stripped in the case of white fuming nitric acid, or remain in solution to form red fuming nitric acid. More recently, electrochemical means have been developed to produce anhydrous acid from concentrated nitric acid feedstock.
Red fuming nitric acid, or RFNA, contains substantial quantities of dissolved nitrogen dioxide (NO2) leaving the solution with a reddish-brown color. One formulation of RFNA specifies a minimum of 17% NO2, another specifies 13% NO2. Because of the dissolved nitrogen dioxide, the density of red fuming nitric acid is lower at 1.490 g/mL.
Nitric acid - New World Encyclopedia
Nitric acid is a powerful , and the reactions of nitric acid with compounds such as , , and metallic powders can be . Reactions of nitric acid with many organic compounds, such as , are violent and (i.e., self-igniting). Due to its properties it is stored away from bases and organics.
A mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids causes the nitration of aromatic compounds, such as benzene. Examination of the infrared spectrum of the acid mixture using a corrosive resistant diamond cell shows infrared peaks close to that expected for carbon dioxide. The species responsible for the peaks is the , , which like , is a linear molecule. The nitronium ion is the species responsible for nitration: being positive, it is attacked by electron-rich benzene rings. This is described more fully in organic chemistry books.
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Achlorhydria the absence of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice
In laboratory, nitric acid can be made from or by reacting approximately equal masses of a nitrate salt with 96% (H2SO4), and this mixture at nitric acid's boiling point of 83 °C until only a white crystalline mass, a metal sulfate, remains in the reaction vessel. The red fuming nitric acid obtained may be converted to the white nitric acid.
Nitric Oxide Cycle, Superoxide and Peroxynitrite
Commercial grade nitric acid solutions are usually between 52% and 68% nitric acid. Production of nitric acid is via the , named after German chemist . In this process, anhydrous is oxidized to , which is then reacted with oxygen in air to form . This is subsequently absorbed in water to form nitric acid and nitric oxide. The nitric oxide is cycled back for reoxidation. By using ammonia derived from the , the final product can be produced from nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen which are derived from air and natural gas as the sole feedstocks.
Benzoic acid - New World Encyclopedia
The dissolved are readily removed using reduced pressure at room temperature (10-30 min at 200 or 27 ) to give white fuming nitric acid. This procedure can also be performed under reduced pressure and temperature in one step in order to produce less gas.
Benzoic acid was discovered in the 16th century
A commercial grade of fuming nitric acid, referred to in the trade as "strong nitric acid" contains 90% HNO3 and has a density of 1.50 g/mL. This grade is much used in the explosives industry. It is not as volatile nor as corrosive as the anhydrous acid and has the approximate concentration of 21.4 molar.
L-ARGININE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and …
The acidic properties tend to dominate with dilute acid, coupled with the preferential formation of (NO). However, when the reaction is carried out in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, the nitric oxide rapidly reacts to form brown (NO2):
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