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More About the Affective Filter:
But, there is a fine line that one must not cross because if there is too much concentration on the errors, the students may become too concerned with grammar rather than the fluency of the language.
It is stated that the Acquisition Theory is more successful.
The Affective Filter hypothesis
This hypothesis describes the blockage of learning that students can run into because of emotional variables such as stress, anxiety, self-confidence, and motivation.
Conclusions Krashen seemed to be on theright track with each of his hypotheses. Anyone who has learned alanguage, and especially those who have seen the grammar-translation methodin action seems to have a gut level feeling that the road to proficiencyruns somewhere outside of textbooks and classrooms. Indeed, in theliterature, every reviewer makes a special effort to acknowledge the incrediblecontribution that Krashen had made to language education. Kramsch(1995) points out that the input metaphor may be a relic of the prestigeof the physical sciences and electrical engineering, but that Krashensacquisition-learning dichotomy cuts at the heart of academic legitimation. She advocates a more productive discourse between applied linguists andforeign language teachers to explore and question the historical and socialforces that have created the present context.
It relates directly to both the affective filter and automaticity.
Judging from the emphasison exposure in the Natural Approach and the pattern of Krashens laterpublications, which focused on the Input Hypothesis, the solution to curriculumproblems seems to be massive listening. However, as noted before,other than i + 1, there is no theoretical basis for overall curriculumdesign regarding comprehension. Once again, the teacher is forcedto rely on a somewhat dubious order of acquisition, which is based onproduction anyway. Further, the link from exposure to productiontargets is tenuous at best. Consider the dialog presented on p.87:
72), once again there isno theoretical basis for what to choose. Perhaps the most glaringomission is the lack of any reference to the Natural Order Hypothesis,which as noted previously, contained no realistically usable informationfor designing curriculum.
Bilingual education and second language acquisitiontheory. In .
Once beyond one-word answersto questions, the Natural Approach ventures out onto thin ice by suggestingelicited productions. These take the form of open-ended sentences,open dialogs and even prefabricated patterns (p.84). These formatsnecessarily involve explicit use of grammar, which violates every hypothesisof the Monitor Model. The authors write this off as training foroptimal Monitor use (p.71, 142), despite Krashens promotion of Monitor-freeproduction. Even if a teacher were to set off in this direction andbegin to introduce a structure of the day (p.
This freedom, combined withthe thoroughness of their curriculum, make the Natural Approach very attractive. In fact, the guidelines they set out at the beginning communication isthe primary goal, comprehension preceding production, production simplyemerge, acquisition activities are central, and the affective filter shouldbe lowered (p.
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Affective-Filter Hypothesis - Lanternfish ESL
McLaughlin argues much alongthe same lines as Gregg and points out that adolescents often acquire languagesfaster than younger, monitor-free children (p.29). He concludes thatwhile affective variables certainly play a critical role in acquisition,there is no need to theorize a filter like Krashens.
Language Learning and Teaching: Krashen's Input Hypothesis
Gregg notes several problemswith this hypothesis as well. Among others, Krashen seems to indicatethat perhaps the affective filter is associated with the emotional upheavaland hypersensitivity of puberty, but Gregg notes that this would indicatethat the filter would slowly disappear in adulthood, which Krashen doesnot allow for (p.92). He also remarks on several operational details,such as the fact that simply not being unmotivated would be the same asbeing highly motivated in this hypothesis neither is the negative stateof being unmotivated. Also, he questions how this filter would selectivelychoose certain parts of a language to reject (p.94).
Second Language Acquisition Theories as a Framework …
Again, the teacher in theclassroom is enticed by this hypothesis because of the obvious effectsof self-confidence and motivation. However, Krashen seems to implythat teaching children, who dont have this filter, is somehow easier,since given sufficient exposure, most children reach native-like levelsof competence in second languages (p.47). This obviously completelyignores the demanding situations that face language minority children inthe U.S.
Key Concepts of Second-Language Acquisition
This hypothesis is perhapsthe most appealing part of Krashens model for the language learner aswell as the teacher. He makes use of the gap between comprehensionand production that everyone feels, enticing us with the hope of instantbenefits if we just get the input tuned to the right level. One ofKrashens cleverest catch-alls is that other methods of teaching appearto work at times because they inadvertently provide this input. Butthe disappointment is that he never gives any convincing idea as to howit works. In the classroom a teacher can see when the students dontunderstand and can simplify his or her speech to the point where they do. Krashen would have the teacher think that this was all that is necessary,and it is just a matter of time before the students are able to expressthemselves freely. However, Ellis (1992) points out that even asof his 1985 work (Krashen 1985), he still had not provided a single studythat demonstrated the Input Hypothesis. Over extended periods oftime students do learn to understand more and even how to speak, but itoften seems to take much longer than Krashen implies, indicating that thereare perhaps many more factors involved. More importantly, even giventhis beginning of i, and the goal of i + 1, indefinable as they are, thereader is given no indication of how to proceed. As shown above theNatural Order Hypothesis holds no answers, especially as to how comprehensionprogresses. In an indication of a direction that should be explored,Elliss exploratory study (ibid.) showed that it is the effort involvedin attempting to understand input rather than simple comprehension thatfuels acquisition.
Krashen's Input Hypotheses - SlideShare
McLaughlin also gives carefuland thorough consideration to this part of Krashens model. He addresseseach of the ten lines of evidence that Krashen presents, arguing that itis not sufficient to simply say that certain phenomenon can be viewed fromthe perspective of the Input Hypothesis. The concept of a learnerslevel is extremely difficult to define, just as the idea of i +1 is (p.37). Further, there are many structures such as passives and yes/no questionsthat cannot be learned through context. Also, there is no evidencethat a learner has to fully comprehend an utterance for it to aid in acquisition. Some of the first words that children and second language learners produceare formulaic expressions that are not fully understood initially. Finally McLaughlin points out that Krashen simply ignores other internalfactors such as motivation and the importance of producing language forinteraction.
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