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Bourtchuladze R, Frenguelli B, Blendy J et al. (1994) Deficient long‐term memory in mice with a targeted mutation of the cAMP‐responsive element‐binding protein. Cell 79(1): 59–68.

The main stages of protein synthesis are transcription and translation.
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This code determines the type of amino acids and the order in which they are joined together to make a specific protein. The sequence of amino acids in a protein determines its structure and function.

Fig. 8.16 Translation process of protein synthesis in prokaryotes.

The protein synthesis occurs in two steps: Transcription and Translation.
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In the adult brain, neurons rapidly communicate through specialised contacts called synapses. The strength of communication at a synapse can be modified as a function of its past use. These changes are mediated, in part, by the local protein synthesis at the synapse.

Biochemical networks called signal transduction pathways convert specific patterns of synaptic transmissions into new protein synthesis. Ribosomal and RNA‐binding proteins are common targets of these pathways.

Protein synthesis - Biology-Online Dictionary

The nucleolus and ribosomes form part of the proteinsynthesizing machinery of the cell
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Osterweil EK, Krueger DD, Reinhold K and Bear MF (2010) Hypersensitivity to mGluR5 and ERK1/2 leads to excessive protein synthesis in the hippocampus of a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. Journal of Neuroscience 30(46): 15616–15627.

Steward O and Worley PF (2001) A cellular mechanism for targeting newly synthesized mRNAs to synaptic sites on dendrites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 98(13): 7062–7068.

Maffei L and Berardi N (2002) Protein synthesis in the visual cortex is needed for ocular dominance plasticity. Neuron 34(3): 328–331.
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From RNA to Protein Synthesis - YouTube

i.ρ-dependent Termination: In some prokaryotes, the termination of transcription is helped by a ρ (rho) protein that gets attached at the 5′ end of the newly synthesizing mRNA. The ρ then moves along the mRNA and induces the formation of hairpin loop near the 3′ end of mRNA due to the presence of inverted repeated sequences. This helps in the detachment of mRNA from the DNA (Fig. 8.9).

Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

The termination of transcription occurs due to the presence of certain terminator sites on DNA. In prokaryotes, the termination is mainly done by in two ways, which involves the presence of certain palindromic sequences (Inverted repeats with the same sequences on the two strands of DNA when read in 5’→ 3′ direction. Thus, the presence of complementarity of bases on the same strand causing loop formation in mRNA due to intrastrand complementary base pairing) on DNA near the termination signals (Fig. 8.7 and 8.8).

A Science Odyssey: DNA Workshop: Protein Synthesis

Martin KC, Casadio A, Zhu H et al. (1997) Synapse‐specific, long‐term facilitation of aplysia sensory to motor synapses: a function for local protein synthesis in memory storage. Cell 91(7): 927–938.

SparkNotes: SAT Subject Test: Biology: Protein Synthesis

i.RNA polymerase I (or A) found in nucleolus for the synthesis of rRNAs (28S and 18S).

ii.RNA polymerase II (or B) found in nucleoplasm for the synthesis of HnRNA (heterogeneous nuclear RNA) which, after processing gives rise to mRNA.

iii.RNA polymerase III (C) found in nucleoplasm for the synthesis of tRNA and 5S rRNA.

iv.Organeller RNA polymerase found in organelles, mitochondria and chloroplasts, (in photosynthetic organisms) and resembles the prokaryotic RNA polymerase.

Protein synthesis :: DNA from the Beginning

In eukaryotes, the termination sites in DNA are present far away from the corresponding actual 3′ end of mRNA, thus, to produce HnRNA (heterogeneous nuclear RNA). The 3′ end of the mRNA is generated after the processing of HnRNA by snurp (small nuclear RNA-protein complex). In addition to these extra nucleotides at 3′ end, the HnRNA may also contain extra nucleotide sequences at the 5′ end and at the internal positions. These extra nucleotide sequences at internal positions are called introns, whereas, the nucleotide sequences in between the introns

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