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Both are involved in the light reaction of photosynthesis.
The picture above depicts both full solar radiation that reaches the earth as well as how a few different man-made light sources fit into the visible/PAR aspect of this spectrum.
What is noteworthy is how much radiation falls outside the PAR, in particular the longer frequency wave lengths going into radio waves. There is much that we also do not know, since photosynthetic plants, zooanthellic algae, etc. might also be using radiant energy we do not know about. What we do know is that since UVC is not reaching the earth's surface and that even UVB only reaches in small amounts (if at all during certain times of the day and seasons), that it is likely this is mostly useless for our application.
PUR cannot be dismissed as some lighting experts have attempted to do based on their short time in the professional aquarium keeping industry, as we have already clearly established (as per the Overview section) that we found that once more precisely tuned spectrum fluorescent lights became available, we could grow aquarium plants more efficiently and with some advancements, this made the difference of not keeping photosynthetic marine organisms at all!! I should note that some of these advancements were comparing apples to apples; T12 to T12 such as a warm white to a Trichromatic or an actinic (which rules out lumens per watt and other measurements and leaves the FACT of PUR).
What Is Photosynthesis? From Light Energy to Chemical Energy
Many people will think PUR is good in theory, but think it cannot be applied to every single species we are trying to grow under water. While we don't know every species and it's preferred nm of light prefers, we do know the light, which triggers photosynthesis in an organism as well as efficiencies based on real world tests.
This increases the efficiency and productivity of the chloroplast.
The glucose sugar that is made by the chloroplast will diffuse out into the cytoplasm of the plant cell and be used for fuel or will be sent to the plant roots to be stored in the form of starch.
So, the light reaction only exists to power the dark reaction where the sugar is actually made.
Photosynthesis, the starting point for energy's travels through life
In plants and algae, photosynthesis takes place in organelles called chloroplasts. A typical plant cell contains about 10 to 100 chloroplasts. The chloroplast is enclosed by a membrane. This membrane is composed of a phospholipid inner membrane, a phospholipid outer membrane, and an intermembrane space between them. Within the membrane is an aqueous fluid called the stroma. The stroma contains stacks (grana) of thylakoids, which are the site of photosynthesis. The thylakoids are flattened disks, bounded by a membrane with a lumen or thylakoid space within it. The site of photosynthesis is the thylakoid membrane, which contains integral and peripheral membrane protein complexes, including the pigments that absorb light energy, which form the photosystems.
While current artificial photosynthesis methods are far less efficient than the natural process, there has been continual progress in the field. One of the reasons that the technology is being pursued is that, compared to current solar panel technology, molecular nanoparticles are cheaper, lighter, and more environmentally sound. Aside from providing a renewable energy source and eliminating our reliance on rapidly diminishing fossil fuels, it has also been suggested that artificial photosynthesis on a large industrial scale could reverse global warming since the process consumes carbon dioxide and releases oxygen. With the potential of such beneficial impacts on the environment and our energy supply, continued research into combining nanotechnology and natural processes should remain a central goal.
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Chemistry for Biologists: Photosynthesis
Other aquarium lighting considerations, besides energy input (watts) used are PUR, PAR, Lumens per watt, & even output relative to the size of the light.
For example, a SHO that uses 105 watts but is only 10" placed into a reflector, will be much more efficient as per wattage & space utilized.
Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis - BioTopics
The process that makes these food chemicals using solar energy is PHOTOSYNTHESIS.
Defined, photosynthesis is: - chemical reactions that convert the radiant energy of sunlight to chemical energy of sugars.
Photosynthesis is a very complex process.
Plant Energy Transformations-Photosynthesis
Lights as they apply to aquarium use have evolved/changed considerable since I have been in the hobby & professionally employed in aquarium set-up & design.
We often used "hardware store" warm white T12 fluorescent lights, just in larger "quantities" to make up for the poor "quality" of light, even while planted freshwater could be kept, not so with ANY photosynthetic reef life.
Early on lights such as the "Aquarilux" came out which still was heavier on the "warm" colors, it also had more blue.
Later the Trichromatics & Triton lamps came out with spectrums focusing on the daylight 6500 Kelvin temperature, these made growing planted aquariums easier with less lights to do the same job as earlier lights.
We also had actinic blue lights become available, these mixed with other lights made it possible in the beginning to keep some photosynthetic reef life, although initially these did not thrive. Later T6 & T5 advancements along with Metal Halide lights allowed us to not only keep delicate photosynthetic reef life, but for this life to thrive.
We now have T2, SHO, & LEDs of which the later have lowered considerably the input energy for the quantity of output energy of light that we need for our aquarium keeping applications.
How can the answer be improved?
In the light reactions, one molecule of the pigment chlorophyll absorbs one photon and loses one electron. This electron is passed to a modified form of chlorophyll called pheophytin, which passes the electron to a quinonemolecule, allowing the start of a flow of electrons down an electron transport chain that leads to the ultimate reduction of NADP to NADPH. In addition, this creates a proton gradient across the chloroplast membrane; its dissipation is used by ATP synthase for the concomitant synthesis of ATP. The chlorophyll molecule regains the lost electron from a water molecule through a process called photolysis, which releases a dioxygen (O2) molecule. The overall equation for the light-dependent reactions under the conditions of non-cyclic electron flow in green plants is:
Light Absorption for Photosynthesis - HyperPhysics …
The metabolic steps of the Calvin cycle are sometimes referred to as the dark reactions, or fight-independent reactions, because none of the steps requires light directly.
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