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Later in the 1980s American oceanographer, John Martin, ..
For the first question, yes- given that there is much more iron in the
glacial ice than in the water column, melting of the glaciers might be
expected to increase diatom growth in Antarctic waters.
Regarding the second question- phytoplankton blooms in the Southern
Ocean are not just limited by iron, but also by light. So in addition to
having enough Fe, the water column has to stratify enough to keep the
mixed layer shallower than the critical depth for the phytoplankton.
Photo provided by Flickr
When the first scientific voyages went to the Southern
Ocean, high levels of living biomass were observed in the
vicinity of islands. Hart (1942) was the first to mention that
the abundant biomass might be due to the release of oligoelements
like iron from the island. This hypothesis,
however, remained unverified for more than half a century
because of the experimental difficulties in properly
manipulating water with subnanomolar iron concentrations.
When John Martin formulated the iron hypothesis
(Martin, 1990) and provided the first supporting evidence
of it, he also suggested using the chlorophyll plume
observed westward of the Galapagos Island in the
Equatorial Pacific as a natural iron fertilization experiment.
iron ocean seeding seems to be the most feasible.
Photo provided by Flickr
Hydrothermal iron has been shown in global biogeochemical models (see
e.g. Tagliabue et al. 2014) to have potential importance in the Southern
Ocean as an Fe source because the very deep winter mixing down here can
bring that deep Fe up to the surface. Of course, the vents themselves
are in the deep sea so that Fe has to be mixed up to the surface to
impact primary producers.
Hello! I'm a geology grad student taking Dr. Angela Knapp's chemical oceanography class at FSU. You mentioned Martin's experiments concerning how iron limitation is affecting diatom productivity. I was wondering if there's any evidence for silica being a limiting nutrient/compound for diatoms in the Southern Ocean, or if it's only iron acting as the limiting nutrient in this system? Also, is there any chance that the areas of the Southern Ocean that are more productive and have higher chlorophyll contents could be getting iron from other sources such as hydrothermal vents or are those pockets of productivity due to some other factor--iron related or not?
Thank you & hope everything is smooth sailing!
The iron hypothesis - EBSCO Information Services
Photo provided by Flickr
Today, we are traveling to Nelson Island and King George Island to collect seawater in three separate sample stations. This area is historically known for higher concentrations of iron, as compared to water in the Drake Passage and other areas of the Southern Ocean.
For many years, scientists believed that this low productivity in the Southern Ocean was caused by low light (light-dependency) or high amounts of zooplankton that feed on the phytoplankton in high amounts. In 1990, published a paper in the journal Paleogeography expressing his idea called the Iron Hypothesis. His paper claimed that iron was the limiting factor in phytoplankton productivity.
Photo provided by Flickr
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09/01/2013 · The iron hypothesis of John Martin; ..
The "iron hypothesis" method of scrubbing the atmosphere of much of its carbon dioxide was proposed in 1990 by John Martin, an oceanographer at Moss Landing Marine Laboratory in California, who died before he could test the idea.
In your own words, explain John Martin s theory about iron dumping
Plants "rarely get beyond the first day." For the iron hypothesis to work successfully, photosynthesized carbon in plant material would have to quickly sink to depths between 100 and 300 meters, beyond the range of grazing zooplankton, he said.
explain John Martin s theory about iron ..
These experiments provide a preponderance of evidence in support of Martin's Iron Hypothesis', to the extent that many refer to iron limitation as the Iron Theory'.
A blooming controversy : John Martin's iron hypothesis …
If Martin's original hypothesis is ultimately shown to remove significant carbon from the atmosphere, a separate question is whether regulators could find a way to incorporate iron fertilization into a system of "carbon credits." Barber will also discuss that issue at the Seattle meeting.Under the carbon credit concept included in the framework of the Kyoto Protocol, a factory emitting excess carbon dioxide, for example, could cancel out those emissions by paying for more trees to be planted.
19 September 2016 The Iron Hypothesis | PolarTREC
The hypothesis of these experiments is that fertilizing the oceans with iron could sufficiently boost photosynthetic rates of floating patches of microscopic plants called phytoplankton to remove large amounts of carbon dioxide from Earth's atmosphere, said Richard Barber, a professor of biological oceanography at Duke's Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences.
John Martin hypothesized that the iron limitations in the ..
Iron is an important element for all living things. In animals, iron is required for oxygen to bind to the hemoglobin protein on our red blood cells. In plant material, iron is essential for a number of processes, including the production of chlorophyll, reducing nitrate into usable forms and fixing atmospheric nitrogen. These processes are necessary for plants and algae. Although iron is the 4th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, usable sources of iron are generally found in much lower concentrations in water. Iron can enter the water because of close vicinity to land, blowing sediments and remineralization by bacteria. In the Southern Ocean where almost everything is covered with ice or snow, there is no sediment (dust) to blow into the ocean. Iron from the continent can increase iron levels in locations close to shore, but not in the open ocean.
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