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Topic: The Intuition And Deduction Thesis – 511876
If the doctrine of space and time is the first major part of hismodel of the mind, the doctrine of synthesis is the second. Kantclaimed, as we saw earlier, that three kinds of synthesis are requiredto organize information, namely apprehending in intuition, reproducingin imagination, and recognizing in concepts (A97-A105). Each of thethree kinds of synthesis relates to a different aspect of Kant'sfundamental duality of intuition and concept. Synthesis ofapprehension concerns raw perceptual input, synthesis of recognitionconcerns concepts, and synthesis of reproduction in imagination allowsthe mind to go from the one to the other.
The proposed reading of the first identity-proposition is also affected, accordingly. We have already proposed that that identical function that gives unity to a judgment and to a synthesis in an intuition, i.e. the transcendental unity of apperception, is the very unity of the identical action, i.e. combination, that is involved in the second identity-proposition. This combination is none other than that involved in a judgment. " . . . we can reduce all acts of the understanding to judgments" (A 69/B 94). And " . . . the understanding . . . is nothing but the faculty of combining a priori, and of bringing the manifold of given represetations under the unity of apperception" (B 135). So, the unity of the identical action in the second identity-proposition is the very unity that is referred to in the first identity-proposition. Of course this must be the case, since a judgment and a synthesis in an intuition are both combinations (B 135, B 142, B 143, B 150, B 162b) and the unity belonging to all combinations is the transcendental unity of apperception (B 131, B 132, B 134-5).
The Intuition And Deduction Thesis
A priori knowledge alone is the sort of knowledge that allows the readings of these two identity-propositions from the metaphysical deduction that are required for a successful transcendental deduction. The logical functions of judgment can have the content attributed to them on the proposed reading of the second identity-proposition if and only if the discussion of these functions which surrounds the Table of Judgments belongs to transcendental, not formal, or general, logic (A 55/B 79). Moreover, logic is thus transcendental if and only if any knowledge of which it is the logic is a priori knowledge (A 55/ B 80). Therefore, the logical functions of judgment have the content required for the proposed reading of the second identity-proposition just in case any knowledge that contains them is a priori knowledge. Consequently, they can contribute to the content of empirical knowledge only in the context of their contribution to the content of a priori knowledge.
It might be objected that the structure of the proposed interpretation of the B-Deduction doesn't follow the actual structure of the Deduction itself. The interpretation seems to tie the triadic interrelation among the categories, the logical functions of judgment, and the transcendental unity of apperception too closely to a priori knowledge, when, in fact, that interrelation is laid down in the first step of the Deduction quite independently, not just of experience, but of a priori knowledge as well. Worse, a priori knowledge of mathematics aside (B 154-5), the possibility of a priori knowledge of the laws of nature in general is established in step-two (B 164-5) only after, and indeed, on the basis of, the proof of the possibility of experience (B 161). So, either the interrelation in question is established independently of knowledge altogether (step-one), or its involvement in a priori knowledge (in step-two) does indeed depend on first proving its necessity with respect to experience, which is precisely the proposition that is being contested in this paper.
Topic: Intuition Deduction Thesis – 852347 | Warlords …
It is upon this theory that the was planned with its fundamental division between the "Transcendental Aesthetic," about the conditions of (what Kant called empirical "intuition"), and the "Transcendental Logic," about the conditions of .
Thus, Kant still says, as late as page 91 of the first edition ("A"), "But since intuition  stands in no need whatsoever of the functions of thought, appearances  would none the less present objects to our intuition" (A 90-91, Norman Kemp Smith translation, 1929, St.
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The Intuition/Deduction thesis concerns how we ..
However, right in the middle of his subsequent argument for why certain concepts would be necessary and known with respect to experience (the "Transcendental Deduction"), Kant realized that "synthesis" would have to produce, not just a structure of thought, but the entire structure of consciousness within which perception also occurs.
Like the Intuition/Deduction thesis…
(4) A sample of such commentators might include Jonathan Bennett, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1966), pp. 94-5; Patricia Kitcher, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), p. 89; and Paul Guyer, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), pp. 98-9, and "The Transcendental Deduction of the Categories," in Paul Guyer, ed., (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), p 127.
Dictionary and Word of the Day.
(5) Moving back just a bit in the metaphysical deduction, we find that the pure concept of the understanding is given by "Pure synthesis" (A 78/B 104). So, the same function that gives unity in a judgment and in an intuition can be identified with the previously mentioned pure synthesis. Therefore, it is pure, not empirical, synthesis that gives unity to the representations both in a judgment and in an intuition. This should eliminate any role for the synthesis of the "reproduction of the manifold" in an explanation of the common source of unity in a judgment and an intuition, since that synthesis "is merely empirical" (A 121; see also B 152). But that is part of the explanation of the unity of the manifold of intuition which we find in the A-Deduction (A 105, A 121). So the A-Deduction is already at odds with the metaphysical deduction.
Immanuel Kant - The Proceedings of the Friesian School
These concluding remarks may prove perplexing to readers who are recalling that being empirical did not prevent the synthesis of apprehension from being carried over from the A- to the B-Deduction (B 160, B 162n.). So why should it be responsible for eliminating the reproduction of the manifold of intuition from the B-Deduction? The answer is that it is not merely its being empirical, but rather its being merely empirical that eliminates the synthesis of reproduction from the argument. The difference between the two is that the concepts, even the necessary ones, i.e. the laws, governing the merely empirical synthesis of reproduction are themselves empirical (A 100, A 121, B 152), even though they must rest on a priori grounds (A 101-2, A 122), whereas the forms to which the empirical synthesis of apprehension must conform are a priori (vide A 99, B 160). The problem with the merely empirical synthesis of reproduction is that what immediately conditions it is itself empirical, and thus psychological (B 139-40). The transcendental deduction must be rid of all psychological conditions on synthesis, including all associative ones, if it is to establish the possibility of a priori knowledge. The B-Deduction does just that, even though it holds over from the A-Deduction the empirical synthesis of apprehension. This empirical synthesis is not a psychological phenomenon.
Natural Deduction | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Well, the passage from the metaphysical deduction we are presently reading tells us that it is the same action that produces the transcendental unity of apperception in concepts that also introduces the content of the logical functions of judgment into the categories. So, since the issue before us is how, independently of the Analytic of Principles, Kant can support his thesis that the categories are the conditions under which objects or representations may be brought to the transcendental unity of apperception, we have only to look for an argument that spells out the relation between the logical form of a judgment that is produced in concepts and the transcendental content that is introduced into the categories. But, under the present proposal, this is a relation between the transcendental unity of apperception and the content of the logical functions of judgment. Furthermore, Kant asserts that the relation obtains through an action that is identical to both of them. It is thus an argument that establishes a relation between this form and this content through an identical action that is involved in each. It is precisely this relation through this identical action (which Kant entitles combination [B 130 ff.]) that finally gets spelled out in the conclusion of the "first step" of the B-Deduction, i.e. in Sections §§ 19 and 20 of that deduction. And, necessarily, this is done as the B-Deduction also explains the identity asserted in the first identity-proposition considered above, namely, the identity between the unity in a judgment and that of a synthesis in an intuition. Of course, this identical unity is none other than the transcendental unity of apperception itself. In a word, these two identity-propositions from the metaphysical deduction set the initial tasks for the transcendental deduction.
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