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Intervention Hypothesis - Fermilab Science Education …
Maryanne Wolf received her doctorate from Harvard University in the Department of Human Development and Psychology in the Graduate School of Education, where she began her work on the neurological underpinnings of reading, language, and dyslexia. Professor Wolf was awarded the Distinguished Professor of the Year Award from the Massachusetts Psychological Association, and also the Teaching Excellence Award from the American Psychological Association.
She was a Fulbright Fellow in Germany where she conducted research on dyslexia in German-speaking children. Her current research in collaboration with Dr. Pat Bowers concerns a new conceptualization of developmental dyslexia, the Double-Deficit Hypothesis. This work was the subject of a recent special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities. Along with colleagues Dr. Robin Morris and Dr. Maureen Lovett, Professor Wolf has been awarded a NICHD Shannon Award for Innovative Research and several multiyear NICHD grants to investigate new approaches to reading intervention.
She is the author of the RAVE-O Intervention Program, an evidence-based fluency comprehension program for struggling readers that has proven successful in two major federal studies.
She received the Norman Geschwind Lecture Award from the International Dyslexia Association for neuroscience research in dyslexia. She has edited the book, Dyslexia, Fluency, and the Brain and is the author of Proust and the Squid: The story and science of the reading brain.
A behavioral intervention plan is a plan that is based on the results of a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and, at a minimum, includes a description of the problem behavior, global and specific hypotheses as to why the problem behavior occurs and intervention strategies that include positive behavioral supports and services to address the behavior.
Theory Use in Intervention Research
he hypothesis statement is a concise summary of information collected during the assessment phase, a statement that explains or represents a "best guess" regarding the reason(s) for the behavior. A well-written hypothesis statement gives clear direction to IEP members, who are responsible for developing a Behavior Intervention Plan. It allows the IEP team to spell out a three-step process—when X occurs, the student does Y, in order to achieve Z—and to translate that knowledge into an individualized Behavior Intervention Plan.
A functional assessment examines antecedents to the problem behavior and the consequences that occur following the behavior. A hypothesis is then formed about what outcome the student gains by using this problem behavior.
An Example of How to Write a Hypothesis
It is imperative that the team designing a behavior plan carefully develop the hypothesis about the function of behavior. The plan will both teach a replacement behavior that meets the same function and will specify environmental alterations that remove the need for the student to use this problem behavior to get his/her needs met. For example, if the hypothesis of the behavior is "revenge," a plan would teach the child how to get revenge in a better way, which is not a viable option. However, if the hypothesis of the behavior is "a protest about the past action of peers," the plan would teach the student a more appropriate protest form that would meet his/her needs, which is a viable option.
nly when the function of the behavior is known is it possible for the IEP team to establish an effective behavioral intervention and support plan that addresses Charles' needs. Following are several examples of hypothesis statements written in such a way that IEP teams can draw specific information from the statement to develop an individualized Behavior Intervention Plan.
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The Process of Positive Behavior Support (PBS) - TACSEI
The null hypothesis of equal effectiveness is The alternative hypothsis states that the difference can be in only one direction For example, an investigator might propose using a one-tailed test to test the efficacy of a cholesterol lowering drug because the drug cannot raise cholesterol.
The Process of Positive Behavior Support (PBS) ..
sing the information that emerges from the analyses, the team can develop a hypothesis statement regarding the likely function(s) of student behavior. The hypothesis statement can then be used to predict the social/environmental conditions (the context) within which the behavior is most likely to occur. For instance, should a teacher report that Charles swears during reading class, the reason for the behavior might be to: a) gain attention, b) avoid instruction, c) seek stimulation, or d) some combination of these functions.
Crisis intervention - Wikipedia
In the midst of racial segregation in the U.S.A and the ‘Jim Crow Laws’, Gordon Allport (1954) proposed one of the most important social psychological events of the 20th century, suggesting that contact between members of different groups (under certain conditions) can work to reduce and . Indeed, the idea that contact between members of different groups can help to reduce and improve social relations is one that is enshrined in policy-making all over the globe. UNESCO, for example, asserts that contact between members of different groups is key to improving social relations. Furthermore, explicit policy-driven moves for greater contact have played an important role in improving social relations between races in the U.S.A, in improving relationships between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland, and encouraging a more inclusive society in post-Apartheid South Africa. In the present world, it is this of the benefits of contact that drives modern school exchanges and cross-group buddy schemes. In the years since Allport’s initial , much research has been devoted to expanding and exploring his . In this article I will review some of the vast literature on the role of contact in reducing , looking at its success, mediating factors, recent theoretical extensions of the hypothesis and directions for future research. Contact is of utmost importance in reducing and promoting a more tolerant and integrated society and as such is a prime example of the real life applications that psychology can offer the world.
Social and Behavioral Theories 6
One of the best contributions of RtI is that it focuses decision makers on student learning outcomes. An RtI implementation is working only when we see upward growth or improvements in student learning. It is hard to beat as an educational investment because by its very definition, its use must return results (or it’s not being used correctly). However, to attain the expected effects, implementers must attend to the small details and work each step with great fidelity. RtI implementation has been compared to going on a diet. Ultimately the weight loss will come, but it follows careful and consistent monitoring of caloric intake and exercise. Short bursts of exercise on an inconsistent schedule will not work. One can do most everything right, but have periodic calorie splurges that ultimately cost the dieter his or her results. In RtI, the decisions made at each step of decision making are only as solid as the data upon which they are based. Yet, the process is not all that complicated, as the examples in this three-part article series show. If users take care to ensure that they conduct each step with accuracy and efficiency, then decision errors will be minimized and learning outcomes will be enhanced. One of the great characteristics of RtI as a system improvement strategy is that any idea set forth by a leadership team is a hypothesis that can be tested with routine, high-quality student performance data. This series articles has provided an overview of RtI decision making as well as examples of decision making in reading and mathematics to help implementers identify where RTI implementation efforts can be tightened up for more accurate decision making and stronger learning effects.
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