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In conservation of energy-momentum is expressed with the aid of a .

The exploitation of all resources requires aninvestment in energy; it takes energy to knap flint or drill foroil. The exploitation of energy resources must entail a goodreturn on investment; unless the energy they release isconsiderably more than the energy used to make them release it,they are not worth exploiting.

Newton's third law presents conservation of momentum, the product of mass and velocity.

In a paper , published in the in 1837, gave one of the earliest general statements of the doctrine of the conservation of energy in the words: "besides the 54 known chemical elements there is in the physical world one agent only, and this is called [energy or work]. It may appear, according to circumstances, as motion, chemical affinity, cohesion, electricity, light and magnetism; and from any one of these forms it can be transformed into any of the others."

In mechanics, conservation of energy is usually stated as

Actually this is the particular case of the more general conservation law

One major problem with making a positive impact on a global level, ultra-elite machinations aside, is that almost nobody focuses on what is important, which I hope to help remedy with this essay. Almost everybody hacks at branches if they hack at all. Conspiracists tend to obsess on elite machinations, which is an exercise of dubious benefit to begin with, but they often become paranoid and also confuse retail elites or other interests with the GCs. Bill Gates and David Rockefeller are probably not members of the GCs’ organization. Also, I learned that ultra-elites can only play their games with the responsibility that almost all people have abdicated as they play the victim. The GCs are only a symptom of our malaise, not a cause. They cannot be beaten at their game, and it is counterproductive and can even be suicidal to try. Making them obsolete is probably the best that we can do. While conspiracists often fixate on ultra-elite machinations, intellectuals, academics, and scientists tend to deny that such activities even exist or are meaningful. It took me many years to understand their resistance to even acknowledging ultra-elite existence, and I think it partly relates to the mainstream scientific worldview that . They have an ideological aversion to the notion that anybody manipulates events on a global scale, and believe that what seems conspiratorial is only anarchic elites competing with each other, which is like Darwin’s view of evolution. They believe that conspiracists see a pattern where none exists, or that the situation can be explained without invoking conscious intent, like materialistic hypotheses of how the universe operates. Radical leftists have to the of such elites; such an idea scares them. Neither obsession nor denial helps people attain productive understandings of the issue. Conspiracists and structuralists are united in thinking like victims, and that, as I see it, . Until they relinquish thinking like a victim, they will not constructively engage the critical issues that humanity faces, and energy ranks above all else. Victims are reactive instead of proactive, and only and resulting action has a prayer of working, in my opinion.

From the , elites have played the same basic games, which were concerned with gaining economic power as a means to political power. All ruling classes . The elites of city-states, whether they were in Mesopotamia or Mesoamerica, tried to militarily conquer their neighbors and form larger polities. Nations and empires have constantly formed, fragmented, and fallen over the millennia, and they almost always disintegrated because they ran out of energy. Greed and can never be satiated, and those in their thrall continually feed their addictions. often become successful politicians and corporate executives, as their affliction is advantageous in organizations in which amassing wealth and power are primary goals. For those who have encountered today’s ultra-elite and lived to tell about it, the evils that they relate about such environments are difficult for “normal” people to understand. Those at the top have elevated greed and a lust for power to nearly inconceivable levels. Just as John Rockefeller hired talented psychopaths, so do the GCs. I have encountered their agents and they talented; I will grant them that. The tried to blame my former partner for her death . He probably worked for the GCs, but was a contract agent, as many are. He later defrauded the public with the same tactics he used to help destroy our company, as did another contract agent provocateur, . People like them do not have consciences.

In conservation of energy-momentum is expressed with the aid of a .

Actually this is the particular case of the more general conservation law

Only when economic surpluses (primarily food) were redistributed, first by chiefs and then by early states, did men rise to dominance in those agricultural civilizations. Because the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent is the best studied and had the greatest influence on humanity, this chapter will tend to focus on it, although it will also survey similarities and differences with other regions where agriculture and civilization first appeared. Whenever agriculture appeared, cities nearly always eventually appeared, usually a few thousand years later. Agriculture’s chief virtue was that it extracted vast amounts of human-digestible energy from the land, and population densities hundreds of times greater than that of hunter-gatherers became feasible. The , but today it is widely thought that population pressures led to agriculture's appearance. The attractions of agricultural life over the hunter-gatherer lifestyle were not immediately evident, at least after the first easy phase, when intact forests and soils were there for the plundering. On the advancing front of agricultural expansion, life was easy, but as forests and soils were depleted, population pressures led to disease, "pests" learned to consume that human-raised food, and agricultural life became a life of drudgery compared to the hunter-gatherer or horticultural lifestyle. Sanitation issues, disease, and environmental decline plagued early settlements, and not long after they transitioned from hunter-gatherers to farmers, but the land could also support many times the people. Another aspect of biology that applies to human civilization is the idea of . Over history, the society with the higher carrying capacity prevailed, and the loser either adopted the winner’s practices or became enslaved, taxed, marginalized, or extinct. On the eve of the Domestication Revolution, Earth’s carrying capacity with the hunter-gatherer lifestyle was around 10 million people, and the actual population was somewhat less, maybe . On the eve of the Industrial Revolution in 1800, Earth’s population was , and again was considered to be about half of Earth's carrying capacity under that energy regime. No matter how talented a hunter-gatherer warrior was, he was no match for two hundred peasants armed with hoes.

Although has a long history in the human line, permanent sedentism began by harvesting nuts and seeds. In the , in a swath of land that includes today’s Israel and Syria, about 13.5 kya the culture (c. 18 kya to 12.5 kya) made acorns and pistachios a dietary staple. Mortars and pestles were in the Kebaran toolkit for processing acorns, which must be pounded into a paste and soaked to leach out , and that work fell exclusively to women. Domestication often meant artificial selection to reduce/remove plant features that protected against grazing. That made the plants more palatable to humans, but it also made them more attractive to other animals. What all major crops developed by humans had in common was the domesticated plants' existence in tropical or warm temperate regions with a dry season. Those plants developed strategies to survive the dry season and stored energy in seeds, roots, and legumes. People learned to exploit that stored energy and they domesticated those plants. Many of today’s domestic crops could not survive in the wild, and protecting crops from other animals and competition from other plants has been an integral part of the Domestication Revolution. Similarly, many domestic animals would have a difficult time surviving in the wild, including people.

A consequence of the law of energy conservation is that  machines can only work perpetually if they deliver no energy to their surroundings.
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Conservation of energy - Wikipedia

The environment, moreover, is under no obligationto carry a constant population of any species for an indefiniteperiod of time. If all of nature were in perfect balance, everyspecies would have a constant population, sustained indefinitelyat carrying capacity. But the history of life involvescompetition among species, with new species evolving and old onesdying out. In this context, one would expect populations tofluctuate, and for species that have been studied, they generallydo (ecology texts such as Odum, 1971 and Ricklefs, 1979 giveexamples).

The law of conservation of energy | Nuffield Foundation

Daniel changed mass to density and altitude topressure to create:


which was eventually changed to:

and was grouped under conservation of energy.

The law of conservation of energy

For recent in-depth examinations of Descartes’ physics, seeGarber 1992a and Des Chene 1996. Schuster 2014 covers Descartes’early physics, from 1618 to 1633. A concise survey of Cartesianphysics can be found in Garber 1992b. The scientific career ofDescartes, with special emphasis on his physics, is presented in Shea1991; see also Gaukroger, Schuster, Sutton 2000 for the many aspectsof his natural philosophy. Gaukroger 2002 examines the Principlesof Philosophy, especially the physics, whereas Slowik 2002focuses primarily on Cartesian space and relational motion. Thehistorical background to much in Descartes’ physics is alsotreated in Ariew 2011. On methodology in Descartes’ naturalphilosophy, see Smith 2009, while Hattab 2009 and Machamer and McGuire2009 cover the development of various ideas important to hisphysics.

Is the idea of conservation of energy a hypothesis or ..

(Guillen, 1995)

Rudolf Clausius in 1850 gathered together the current body of energyequations under a general law he called the Law of EnergyConservation.

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