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Inquiry | Hypothesis | Experiment - Scribd
Experiments must have the ability to be duplicated because the “answers” the scientist comes up with (whether it supports or refutes the original hypothesis) cannot become part of the knowledge base unless other scientists can perform the exact same experiment(s) and achieve the same result; otherwise, the experiment is useless.
I begin my discussion with a reconstruction of Adolph Grünbaum's conceptual analysis of 'placebo,' and then use his notion of "intentional placebo" to discuss a typical experiment using the monoamine hypothesis, two drugs and a placebo....
inquiry growthofknowledge | Experiment | Hypothesis
I approach this question through an in-depth analysis of a typical experiment for clinical depression involving the monoamine hypothesis, drug action, and placebos.
: In everyday language, generally refers to something that a fortune teller makes about the future. In science, the term generally means "what we would expect to happen or what we would expect to observe if this idea were accurate." Sometimes, these scientific predictions have nothing at all to do with the future. For example, scientists have hypothesized that a huge asteroid struck the Earth 4.5 billion years ago, flinging off debris that formed the moon. If this idea were true, we would that the moon today would have a similar composition to that of the Earth's crust 4.5 billion years ago a prediction which does seem to be accurate. This hypothesis deals with the deep history of our solar system and yet it involves predictions in the scientific sense of the word. Ironically, scientific predictions often have to do with past events. In this website, we've tried to reduce confusion by using the words and instead of and . To learn more, visit in our section on the core of science.
What would be valid hypothesis for this experiment?
: In everyday language, the word usually refers to an educated guess or an idea that we are quite uncertain about. Scientific hypotheses, however, are much more informed than any guess and are usually based on prior experience, scientific background knowledge, preliminary observations, and logic. In addition, hypotheses are often supported by many different lines of evidence in which case, scientists are more confident in them than they would be in any mere "guess." To further complicate matters, science textbooks frequently misuse the term in a slightly different way. They may ask students to make a about the outcome of an experiment (e.g., table salt will dissolve in water more quickly than rock salt will). This is simply a prediction or a guess (even if a well-informed one) about the outcome of an experiment. Scientific hypotheses, on the other hand, have explanatory power they are explanations for phenomena. The idea that table salt dissolves faster than rock salt is not very hypothesis-like because it is not very explanatory. A more scientific (i.e., more explanatory) hypothesis might be "The amount of surface area a substance has affects how quickly it can dissolve. More surface area means a faster rate of dissolution." This hypothesis has some explanatory power it gives us an idea of a particular phenomenon occurs and it is testable because it generates expectations about what we should observe in different situations. If the hypothesis is accurate, then we'd expect that, for example, sugar processed to a powder should dissolve more quickly than granular sugar. Students could examine rates of dissolution of many different substances in powdered, granular, and pellet form to further test the idea. The statement "Table salt will dissolve in water more quickly than rock salt" is not a hypothesis, but an expectation generated by a hypothesis. Textbooks and science labs can lead to confusions about the difference between a hypothesis and an expectation regarding the outcome of a scientific test. To learn more about scientific hypotheses, visit in our section on how science works.
CORRECTION: Perhaps because the last step of the Scientific Method is usually "draw a conclusion," it's easy to imagine that studies that don't reach a clear conclusion must not be scientific or important. In fact, scientific studies don't reach "firm" conclusions. Scientific articles usually end with a discussion of the limitations of the tests performed and the alternative hypotheses that might account for the phenomenon. That's the nature of scientific knowledge it's inherently tentative and could be overturned if new evidence, new interpretations, or a better explanation come along. In science, studies that carefully analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the test performed and of the different alternative explanations are particularly valuable since they encourage others to more thoroughly scrutinize the ideas and evidence and to develop new ways to test the ideas. To learn more about publishing and scrutiny in science, visit our discussion of .
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Test the hypothesis and predictions in an experiment that ..
CORRECTION: This misconception likely stems from introductory science labs, with their emphasis on getting the "right" answer and with congratulations handed out for having the "correct" hypothesis all along. In fact, science gains as much from figuring out which hypotheses are likely to be wrong as it does from figuring out which are supported by the evidence. Scientists may have personal favorite hypotheses, but they strive to consider multiple hypotheses and be unbiased when evaluating them against the evidence. A scientist who finds evidence contradicting a favorite hypothesis may be surprised and probably disappointed, but can rest easy knowing that he or she has made a valuable contribution to science.
Revise your hypothesis and experiment again
D. Conclusion: Provide a conclusion derived from your interpretation of the data. Include the following in your conclusion:
D1. Confirmation of Hypothesis: Discuss whether your results confirm or refute your hypothesis.
D2. Experimental Design as Key Factor: Explain why experimental design is a key factor in the success of the scientific inquiry.
D3. Replication: Explain how your investigation can be replicated by someone else.
D3a. Evaluation of Validity: Discuss how the replication of an experiment is an evaluation of validity.
Scientific Inquiry Flashcards | Quizlet
A2b. Reasoning: Discuss your reasoning for choosing this particular experimental design plan.
A2c. Sequence of Events: Explain the sequence of events you will use to collect quantitative data.
A2d. Tools, Technologies & Measurement Units: Describe the tools, technologies, and measurement units that will be used to collect quantitative data.
A3. Variables: Explain and identify the dependent, independent, and controlled variables for your study.
A4. Threat Reduction to Internal Validity: Explain what you will do to reduce the threats to internal validity.
A5. Hypothesis: In the hypothesis section, explain how you came up with your hypothesis.
• Include a clear statement of your hypothesis in your explanation.
explaining why a hypothesis is true ..
The inquiry-based activities emphasize the scientific method. Students make observations, propose hypotheses, design experiments, collect and analyze data generated by the simulation, and synthesize and communicate results through an electronic notebook and an online report.
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