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Introduction Research Methodology will be available on

As such, by taking a hypothesis testing approach, Sarah and Mike want to generalize their results to a population rather than just the students in their sample. However, in order to use hypothesis testing, you need to re-state your research hypothesis as a null and alternative hypothesis. Before you can do this, it is best to consider the process/structure involved in hypothesis testing and what you are measuring. This structure is presented .

Key concepts of the research methodology. Understanding the significance of the Scientific Method.

Systematic reviews are currently favored methods of evaluating research in order to reach conclusions regarding medical practice. The need for such reviews is necessitated by the fact that no research is perfect and experts are prone to bias. By combining many studies that fulfill specific criteria, one hopes that the strengths can be multiplied and thus reliable conclusions attained. Potential flaws in this process include the assumptions that underlie the research under examination. If the assumptions, or axioms, upon which the research studies are based, are untenable either scientifically or logically, then the results must be highly suspect regardless of the otherwise high quality of the studies or the systematic reviews. We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. It is this failure that is purportedly being corrected systematic reviews. We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions.

Hypothesis in Qualitative Research - ResearchGate

In statistics terminology, the students in the study are the sample and the larger group they represent (i.e., all statistics students on a graduate management degree) is called the population. Given that the sample of statistics students in the study are representative of a larger population of statistics students, you can use hypothesis testing to understand whether any differences or effects discovered in the study exist in the population. In layman's terms, hypothesis testing is used to establish whether a research hypothesis extends beyond those individuals examined in a single study.

Because nonhuman animal models (hereafter referred to as animal models or animals) have on multiple occasions been unsuccessful in predicting human response to drugs and disease (we will address this claim in depth), many have called for SRs in order to improve the models [-]. An example of this predicament would be the animal models used to determine which drugs to develop in an attempt to diminish neurological damage from ischemia events of the central nervous system (CNS) [, -]. By analyzing animal-based research with SRs, flaws in the methodology would also become apparent thus leading to eventual standardization of such studies. This would ostensibly also lead to better predictive values for humans (see table for calculating such values). Bracken supports this, stating:

ETEC 500: Research Methodology in Education (core) | …

The first step in hypothesis testing is to set a research hypothesis. In Sarah and Mike's study, the aim is to examine the effect that two different teaching methods – providing both lectures and seminar classes (Sarah), and providing lectures by themselves (Mike) – had on the performance of Sarah's 50 students and Mike's 50 students. More specifically, they want to determine whether performance is different between the two different teaching methods. Whilst Mike is skeptical about the effectiveness of seminars, Sarah clearly believes that giving seminars in addition to lectures helps her students do better than those in Mike's class. This leads to the following research hypothesis:

One reason why animal experiments often do not translate into replications in human trials or into cancer chemoprevention is that many animal experiments are poorly designed, conducted and analyzed. Another possible contribution to failure to replicate the results of animal research in humans is that reviews and summaries of evidence from animal research are methodologically inadequate [].

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Research Hypothesis - SAGE Research Methods

This ten chapter research methods text is written for both undergraduate and graduate students in education, psychology, and the social sciences.

Hypothesis Testing - Structure and the research, null …

. . . the use of SRs for the optimisation of animal testing is still rare which can lead to waste in funding and harm to patients and research volunteers. The 3RRC encourages the use of SRs in animal studies as they improve scientific quality, lead to implementation of the 3Rs principles, improve translational research and help in determining the value of animal studies to human health [].


When you conduct a piece of quantitative research, you are inevitably attempting to answer a research question or hypothesis that you have set. One method of evaluating this research question is via a process called hypothesis testing, which is sometimes also referred to as significance testing. Since there are many facets to hypothesis testing, we start with the example we refer to throughout this guide.

In deductive research, a HYPOTHESIS is necessary

There methodological problems in current animal-based research. Pound et al. [] highlighted some of the potential flaws when using animal models, including:

Types Of Hypothesis In Research Methodology Pdf

A is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study. For example, an experiment designed to look at the relationship between study habits and test anxiety might have a hypothesis that states, "We predict that students with better study habits will suffer less test anxiety." Unless your study is exploratory in nature, your hypothesis should always explain what you expect to happen during the course of your experiment or research.

Generating A Research Hypothesis

The assumption that animal models are predictive of human outcome is foundational for much of their use in biomedical research and for justifying animal-based research in general. Whether this assumption is true is a separate issue from that of methodology and study design although methodology may influence predictive value. The prevailing view within the animal model community among those calling for standardization and SRs, per above, is that animal models would perform better, meaning they would have a higher PPV and NPV for humans, if researchers adhered to strict criteria with respect to study design and methodology []. It is important to note that the potential validity of the animal model for predicting human response to drugs and disease is not questioned, at least in most of the literature that addresses SRs and standardization. We acknowledge that animals can successfully be used in categories 3-9 in table and that SRs could positively impact on such use and that some calling for SRs and standardization advocate for such on this basis. However, it appears that the main emphasis among those calling for SRs and standardization is to improve predictive value. Therefore we consider it appropriate to explore whether a proper understanding of evolutionary biology and complexity science allows for the use of one species to predict responses to drugs and diseases for another, even under ideal circumstances [, , -]. SRs require the practice under study to be scientifically tenable. If the practice is not viable, then SRs will be of little value. We will now present the empirical evidence and later seek to place it within the context of complexity science and evolutionary biology.

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